New ammonia import infrastructure under development across Europe (and beyond)

Wilhelmshaven

Graphic overview of TES’ plans for a green energy import ecosystem centered on Wilhelmshaven, receiving ammonia imports from the Arabian peninsula. Source: TES.
Click to enlarge. Graphic overview of TES’ plans for a green energy import ecosystem centered on Wilhelmshaven, receiving ammonia imports from the Arabian peninsula. Source: TES.

Niedersachsen Ports, Uniper and Tree Energy Solutions will explore the feasibility of brand new, “green gases” jetty infrastructure at Wilhelmshaven for future fuel imports. Six berths will allow Uniper to eventually import around 2.6 million tonnes of ammonia per year. Combined with an onsite electrolyser capacity of 1 GW & an industrial-scale ammonia cracker, the Wilhelmshaven hub could provide 10-20% of Germany’s hydrogen demand in 2030. The immediate focus for the trio is the import of LNG and “eNG” fuel into Wilhelmshaven, with Germany’s first-ever LNG import terminal opened in December last year. TES will take FID on the new infrastructure this year, with the first phase to be completed in 2026.

After the successful construction of the LNG terminal in record time, we at Uniper are now fully dedicated to the construction of the import terminal for green ammonia and the construction of the gigawatt of electrolysis to supply our customers with green hydrogen.

Uniper COO (Asset Management) Dr. Holger Kreetz in TES’ official press release, 22 Dec 2023

Also at Wilhelmshaven, bp will explore building its own hydrogen hub. bp’s plans include an industrial-scale ammonia cracker to produce up to 130,000 tonnes of hydrogen per year, starting in 2028. Infrastructure at the existing Nord-West Oelleitung terminal will be utilised, with existing oil & gas pipelines to be repurposed for hydrogen transport, eventually connecting the port with the Ruhr and other industrial areas. Imports will arrive from bp ammonia production projects around the world, such as the Australian Renewable Energy Hub.

We have the expertise and capacity to cover the entire value chain of green hydrogen production, including conversion into derivates (sic) like ammonia, transport, and then reconversion to supply green hydrogen to the customers and places who need it. This development would help create greater energy independence for our German customers across a range of low carbon energy products.

bp Europa CEO Patrick Wendeler in his organisation’s official press release, 18 Jan 2023

Brunsbüttel

Yara’s existing import terminal, storage and ammonia production facilities in Brunsbüttel, which will soon be upgraded to enable 3 million tonnes per year of ammonia imports. Source: Yara.
Click to learn more. Yara’s existing import terminal, storage and ammonia production facilities in Brunsbüttel, which will soon be upgraded to enable 3 million tonnes per year of ammonia imports. Source: Yara.

Yara announced it will modify its existing ammonia terminals in Brunsbüttel, Germany to enable imports of up to 3 million tonnes of ammonia per year. Modifications in Brunsbüttel will be completed by the end of this year, with Yara’s other German import terminal at Rostock ready to receive larger volumes of ammonia, if required. Yara currently imports 600,000 tonnes of ammonia per year into Rostock, which boasts Germany’s largest ammonia storage capacity, and is the site for another planned ammonia import terminal being developed by Total Eren and gas utility VNG. Brunsbüttel will also be home to RWE’s planned ammonia import terminal, which will be ready to receive shipments from Namibia in 2026.

Rotterdam

Horisont Energi has been exploring a supply chain linking its Barents Blue ammonia production project and Koole Terminals’ import facilities in Rotterdam since 2021. Now, in a new agreement, the pair will collaborate to fully develop that chain. An ammonia import terminal for “onward inland, continental Europe and onward seabound distribution” will be developed, featuring comingled ammonia storage. The pair will also develop ammonia bunkering facilities in Rotterdam, with Horisont to be one of the first customers.

To serve the market with clean ammonia, we are eager to start the work to develop a full logistic value chain. This will ensure transport, receipt, and delivery of clean ammonia to different industries and to the markets in the years to come. The green shipping industry is of special interest to us and with the Fuel EU Maritime Initiative moving towards approval next year, this agreement is also important seen in a larger context.

Horisont Energi CEO Bjørgulf Haukelidsæter Eidesen in his organisation’s official press release, 22 Dec 2022

Immingham

Graphic overview of the Immingham Green Energy Terminal project, as provided in the Public Exhibition Materials currently on display during the consultation phase.
Click to enlarge. Graphic overview of the Immingham Green Energy Terminal project, as provided in the Public Exhibition Materials currently on display during the consultation phase.

A planned ammonia import facility by Air Products and Associated British Ports was announced in September last year, with the northern UK port to receive ammonia imports from Air Products ammonia production projects around the world. Development of the “Immingham Green Energy Terminal” is quickly accelerating, with a community & stakeholder consultation process currently underway. Further details about the project infrastructure have been released, including a two-berth, deep water jetty for ammonia imports, a refrigerated ammonia storage tank, multiple cracking facilities to convert the ammonia into hydrogen and loading facilities for liquid hydrogen tankers. As shown in the graphic to the right, hydrogen fuel for mobility is the ultimate end-use of the project.

Unlocking ammonia imports with large-scale cracking

Many of the above announcements mention industrial-scale ammonia cracking, but there are currently few organisations deploying & demonstrating the necessary technologies, and at the required scale. One is thyssenkrupp Uhde, which this week signed an agreement with ADNOC to develop large-scale ammonia cracking plants based on the uhde® reformer technology. Such plants will unlock supply chains beginning with the production and shipment of clean ammonia from the UAE.

Clean ammonia is the best way to transport hydrogen by ship, and together with ADNOC, we will deliver the last piece of the puzzle for global green hydrogen trade at large scale.

thyssenkrupp Uhde CEO Dr. Cord Landsmann in his organisation’s official press release, 17 Jan 2023

Taiwan

Click to learn more about the new ammonia import terminal planned for Taiwan, to be developed by Stolthaven Terminals and Revivegen.
Click to learn more about the new ammonia import terminal planned for Taiwan, to be developed by Stolthaven Terminals and Revivegen.

Stolthaven Terminals and Revivegen will develop a bulk liquid import and storage facility in Taiwan, positioning the island nation to transition to alternative fuels like ammonia. The pair have been in discussions since 2021, with plans now proceeding for the greenfield terminal to be constructed in Kaohsiung Port. The move connects Taiwan with growing ammonia supply chains throughout the APAC region.

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