Paper

Proton-Based Solid Acid for Ammonia Removal

Large amount of water is a NH3 absorbent in the plant facilities for emergency. NH3 and NH4+ coexist in ammonia water. For example, potential of hydrogen (pH) is 11 in 2500 ppm ammonia water and the ratio of NH3 and NH4+ are 98% and 2%, respectively. The aqueous solution releases NH3 due to the high equilibrium vapor pressure, resulting in increase of the negative effects on the environment. Therefore, in order to reduce ammonia released to the atmosphere, sulfuric acid is added in the aqueous solution. In this case, ammonium sulfate is formed and dissolves in the water. Therefore complicated…

Paper

Safety of Ammonia As Hydrogen and Energy Carriers

Ammonia (NH3) is liquefied at 1 MPa and 25 °C, and has a highest volumetric hydrogen density of 10.7 kg H2 /100L. It has a high gravimetric hydrogen density of 17.8 wt%. The heat of formation of NH3 is about 1/10 of combustion heat of hydrogen. NH3 has advantages as a hydrogen carrier for fuel cell vehicles and an energy carrier for power plants. In this research, the purpose is to figure out regulations for safety of NH3 in the world, and survey NH3 accident. We also characterize water as a NH3 absorbent. Regulations for flammability and health hazard are…