A fast-growing ecosystem of startups is progressing various technology pathways in Australia and New Zealand. Melbourne-based Jupiter Ionics is developing an electrolytic cell that will directly reduce nitrogen to ammonia under mild temperature and pressure conditions. In New Zealand, Liquium is embarking on a pilot-scale deployment of its miniaturised Haber Bosch technology. The University of Newcastle and Element One are progressing validation and pilot-phase deployments of AMMONIAC - a novel, “chemical-looping” ammonia production system. And in Sydney, PlasmaLeap is developing a plasma-based system, with on-farm trials already planned.