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Tohoku University

Article

Cardiff-KAUST-Tohoku Young Researcher Workshop on Ammonia Energy

Organised by a panel of young researchers — and for young researchers — Cardiff University, KAUST and Tohoku University hosted a virtual workshop on ammonia energy. Each group showed their most recent research developments through the two-day event, attracting 50+ participants from the three groups alone. The event included research introductions from the research leaders of each group as well as quizzes, discussion rooms, prizes. Each group selected 6 early career presenters to feature their latest work in the topics of chemistry and microflow reactors, laminar and turbulent flames and applications. Taking advantage of the discussion sessions, this workshop hopes to promote large scale international collaboration and a researcher exchange programme in ammonia energy.

Article

A Deep Dive into SIP “Energy Carriers” Ammonia Combustion Research

From 2014 to 2018 Bunro Shiozawa served as Deputy Program Director of the SIP “Energy Carriers” initiative in Japan. Over the last year he has published a ten-part series of articles that describe and reflect on the research supported by the initiative. Part 4 covers ammonia combustion technologies. The first half of the article follows, in Shiozawa's English translation. The second half will be posted in the near future.

Paper

Pure Ammonia Combustion Micro Gas Turbine System

To protect against global warming, a massive influx of renewable energy is expected. Although hydrogen is a renewable media, its storage and transportation in large quantity has some problems. Ammonia fuel, however, is a hydrogen energy carrier and carbon-free fuel, and its storage and transportation technology is already established. In the 1960s, development of ammonia combustion gas turbines was abandoned because combustion efficiency was unacceptably low [1]. Recent demand for hydrogen energy carriers has revived the interest in ammonia as fuel [2, 3]. In 2015, ammonia-combustion gas turbine power generation was reported in Japan using a 50-kW class micro gas…

Article

Ammonia Gas Turbines on European R&D List

ETN Global’s latest R&D Recommendation was released in October 2018.  ETN stands for European Turbine Network and its technology of interest is the gas turbine.  The 2018 Recommendation is notable because it is the first that includes ammonia on the R&D agenda.

Paper

Performance of Ammonia-Natural Gas Co-Fired Gas Turbine for Power Generation

Ammonia is paid special attention as renewable energy carrier [1-3], because it offers advantages in generation, transportation and utilization. Haber-Bosch method is already established as ammonia generation method; large amount of ammonia is already used as fertilizer and chemical raw material. Ammonia can be liquefied at room temperature. Its transport and storage system are already established. Ammonia is cheaper to transport than hydrogen. Ammonia can be used as carbon-free fuel in internal combustion engines as alternative to conventional hydrocarbon fuels. However, it has different combustion characteristics. For example, the nitrogen atom contained in the ammonia molecule, causes high NOx emission…

Paper

Two Stage Ammonia Combustion in a Gas Turbine like Combustor for Simultaneous NO and Unburnt Ammonia Reductions

Ammonia is expected not only as a hydrogen energy carrier but also as a carbon free fuel. Recently, ammonia fueled gas turbine combustor was successfully demonstrated. However, large amount of NOx was produced when ammonia burns because ammonia includes nitrogen atom in the ammonia molecule. In addition, unburnt ammonia concentration in exhaust gas also needs to be reduced. In this study, we proposed a combustion concept in order to reduce NO and unburnt ammonia concentrations in the exhaust gas simultaneously in a gas turbine like model swirl combustor. In this concept, two stage (rich – lean) combustion was employed. Two…

Paper

Development of Low-NOx Combustor of Micro Gas Turbine Firing Ammonia Gas

A massive influx of renewable energy is required in order to mitigate global warming. Although hydrogen is a renewable media, its storage and transportation in large quantity is difficult. Ammonia, however, is a hydrogen energy carrier, and its storage and transportation technology is already established. Although ammonia fuel combustion was studied in the 1960s in the USA, the development of an ammonia fuel gas turbine had been abandoned because combustion efficiency was unacceptably low [1]. Recent demand for hydrogen energy carrier revives the usage of ammonia fuel. The National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) in Japan, in…

Article

Full program announced for the 2018 NH3 Event Europe

The second annual European Conference on Sustainable Ammonia Solutions has announced its full program, spread over two days, May 17 and 18, 2018, at Rotterdam Zoo in the Netherlands. The international cadre of speakers, representing a dozen countries from across Europe as well as the US, Canada, Israel, and Japan, will describe global developments in ammonia energy from the perspectives of industry, academia, and government agencies.

Paper

Methods for Low NOx Combustion in Ammonia / Natural Gas Dual Fuel Gas Turbine Combustor

Ammonia is a carbon-free fuel, so it has potential to reduce carbon dioxide emission from power plants when used as a fuel. However, combustion characteristics of ammonia are notably different from hydrocarbon fuels, especially regarding NOx emission [1]. The nitrogen atom of the ammonia molecule may cause high NOx emission. Therefore, special techniques to reduce NOx emission are essential for gas turbine combustors which burn ammonia and natural gas. The results of our previous study [2] showed the characteristics of NOx emission in single-stage combustion. In this study, the concept for low-emission combustion in two-stage combustion has been examined numerically…

Paper

Combustion Emissions from NH3 Fuel Gas Turbine Power Generation Demonstrated

To protect against global warming, a massive influx of renewable energy is expected. Although H2 is a renewable media, its storage and transportation in large quantity is difficult. NH3 fuel, however, is an H2 energy carrier and carbon-free fuel, and its storage and transportation technology is already established. Although NH3 fuel combustion was studied in the 1960s in the USA, the development of an NH3 fuel gas turbine had been abandoned because combustion efficiency was unacceptably low [1]. Recent demand for H2 energy carrier revives the usage of NH3 fuel, but no one has attempted an actual design setup for…

Article

254th ACS Meeting, Energy and Fuels Symposium “The Ammonia Economy” — Oxidation, Catalytic Cracking & Storage

In August of 2017 a symposium on the Ammonia Economy was held in Washington DC as part of the Energy and Fuels Division of the American Chemical Society (ACS) conference. The symposium was devised to explore the latest results from ammonia related research, including but not limited to; advances in the generation of ammonia, advances in the catalytic cracking of ammonia to nitrogen and hydrogen, ammonia storage and utilisation, detectors and sensors for ammonia, ammonia fuel cells and hydrogen from ammonia, ammonia combustion and ammonia safety.

Article

SIP “Energy Carriers” video: ammonia turbines, industrial furnaces, fuel cells

To demonstrate the progress of the SIP "Energy Carriers" program, the Japan Science and Technology Agency last week released a video, embedded below, that shows three of its ammonia fuel research and development projects in operation. R&D is often an abstract idea: this video shows what it looks like to generate power from ammonia. As it turns out, fuel cells aren't hugely photogenic. Nonetheless, if a picture is worth a thousand words, this will be a long article.

Article

Advances in Ammonia-Fired Gas Turbines Open Up Major Use Case

In the last 12 months ... Researchers seeking to fire gas turbines with ammonia made significant strides toward realization of commercial-scale machines in both the U.K. and Japan. This means that electricity generation has become a realistic near-term use-case for ammonia energy.

Article

Green Ammonia Consortium: Bright Prospects in Japan for Ammonia as an Energy Carrier

In the last 12 months ... In July 2017, 19 companies and three research institutions came together to form the Green Ammonia Consortium. Before this development, it was unclear whether ammonia would find a significant role in Japan’s hydrogen economy. In the wake of this announcement, however, ammonia seems to have claimed the leading position in the race among potential energy carriers.

Article

Major Development for Ammonia Energy in Japan

On July 25, the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) announced that a collection of companies and research institutions had come together to form a Green Ammonia Consortium.  The 22-member group will take over responsibility for the ammonia aspect of the Cross-Ministerial Strategic Innovation Program (SIP) Energy Carriers agenda when the SIP is discontinued at the end of fiscal 2018.  A JST press release states that the Consortium intends to develop a strategy for “forming [an] ammonia value chain,” promote demonstration projects that can further commercialization, and enable “Japanese industry to lead the world market.”

Article

Industrial demonstrations of ammonia fuel in Japan

Most of the ammonia energy projects I write about are in the research and development phase but, as I've said before, technology transfer from the academic lab to commercial deployment is moving swiftly - especially in Japan. Last week, Nikkei Asian Review published two articles outlining plans by major engineering and power firms to build utility-scale demonstrations using ammonia as a fuel for electricity generation. Both projects aim to reduce the carbon intensity of the Japanese electrical grid, incrementally but significantly, by displacing a portion of the fossil fuels with ammonia. The first project will generate power using an ammonia-coal mix, while the second will combine ammonia with natural gas.

Article

Ammonia-Fueled Gas Turbine Power Generation

Hideaki Kobayashi, professor at the Institute of Fluid Science at Tohoku University in Sendai, Japan, has developed the world’s first technology for direct combustion of ammonia in a gas turbine. The advance was made in cooperation with the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) under a program led by Norihiko Iki.

Article

Ammonia Turbine Power Generation with Reduced NOx

A common concern with ammonia fuel is that NOx emissions will be too high to control. However, in new research from Turkey, USA, and Japan, presented at this year's NH3 Fuel Conference in September 2016, two things became clear. First, NOx emissions can be reduced to less than 10ppm by employing good engineering design and exploiting the chemical properties of ammonia, which plays a dual role as both the fuel and the emissions-cleanup agent. Second, the deployment of ammonia-fueled turbines for power generation is not only feasible, but actively being developed, with demonstration units running today and improved demonstration projects currently in development.

Paper

Development of ammonia / natural gas dual fuel gas turbine combustor

NH3 is a carbon-free fuel, so it has the potential to reduce CO2 emission from the power plant when used as a fuel. However, NH3 has combustion characteristics different from conventional hydrocarbon fuels. The N atom in the ammonia molecule causes high NOx emission through combustion reactions. To develop a gas-turbine combustor, which burns a combination of NH3 and natural gas with controlled emissions, combustion characteristics have been studied experimentally and numerically by using a swirl-burner, which is typically used in gas-turbines. Detailed exhaust gas compositions of the burner have been measured under atmospheric pressure and fuel lean conditions. As…

Paper

Combustion characteristics of ammonia/air flames for a model swirl burner and an actual gas turbine combustor

Ammonia is expected not only as hydrogen energy carrier but also as carbon free fuel. For an industrial use of ammonia combustor, ammonia flame stabilized on a swirl combustor should be clarified. However, in order to realize an ammonia-fueled combustor, there are some issues to be solved, such as a difficulty of flame stabilization and reductions of NOx and ammonia emission. In this study, stabilization and emission characteristics of ammonia / air flames stabilized by a model swirl burner are investigated. The outer and inner diameters of the swirler are 24 mm and 14 mm, respectively, and the swirl number…

Paper

Power Generation and Flame Visualization of Micro Gas Turbine Firing Ammonia or Ammonia-Methane Mixture

A demonstration test with the aim to show the potential of ammonia-fired power plant is planned using a micro gas turbine. 50kW class turbine system firing kerosene is selected as a base model. A standard combustor is replaced to a prototype combustor which enables a bi-fuel supply of kerosene and ammonia gas. Diffusion combustion is employed to the prototype combustor due to its flame stability. 44kW power generation was achieved by 100% heat from ammonia gas. Although NOx concentration in the exhaust gas of ammonia combustion exceeded 500ppm, NOx removal equipment reduced NOx concentration below 10ppm. Over 30kW power generation…

Paper

Enhancement of reaction and stability of ammonia flames using hydrogen addition and swirling flow

Enhancement of reaction and stability of ammonia flames using hydrogen addition and swirling flow Akihiro Hayakawa*, Akinori Ichikawa, Yoshiyuki Arakawa, Taku Kudo and Hideaki Kobayashi, Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University

Paper

Combustion characteristics of ammonia/natural gas dual fuel burner for gas turbine combustor

Combustion characteristics of ammonia/natural gas dual fuel burner for gas turbine combustor Shintaro Ito*, Soichiro Kato, Tsukasa Saito, Toshiro Fujimori, IHI Corporation; Hideaki Kobayashi, Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University

Paper

Micro Gas Turbine Firing Ammonia

Micro Gas Turbine Firing Ammonia Norihiko Iki*, Osamu Kurata, Takayuki Matsunuma, Takahiro Inoue, Masato Suzuki, Taku Tsujimura and Hirohide Furutani, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Fukushima Renewable Energy Institute (FREA); Hideaki Kobayashi, Akihiro Hayakawa, Yoshiyuki Arakawa, Masanori Ichikawa, Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University

Paper

Fundamental Characteristics of Ammonia/Air Premixed Laminar Flames

Fundamental flame characteristics must be required for the design of ammonia fueled combustors. However, few studies of ammonia combustion have been conducted. In this study, fundamental ammonia/air premixed laminar flame characteristics, such as NO formation/reduction mechanisms and laminar burning velocity, were experimentally and numerically investigated. NO mole fraction in burned gas from ammonia/air premixed flames were investigated using a stainless-steel nozzle burner. Experiments were conducted at various equivalence ratios and pressures. As a result, NO mole fraction in burned gas reduced with the increase in equivalence ratio and pressure. Formation/reduction mechanisms of NO were numerically investigated. Laminar burning velocity and…

Article

Cardiff-KAUST-Tohoku Young Researcher Workshop on Ammonia Energy

Organised by a panel of young researchers — and for young researchers — Cardiff University, KAUST and Tohoku University hosted a virtual workshop on ammonia energy. Each group showed their most recent research developments through the two-day event, attracting 50+ participants from the three groups alone. The event included research introductions from the research leaders of each group as well as quizzes, discussion rooms, prizes. Each group selected 6 early career presenters to feature their latest work in the topics of chemistry and microflow reactors, laminar and turbulent flames and applications. Taking advantage of the discussion sessions, this workshop hopes to promote large scale international collaboration and a researcher exchange programme in ammonia energy.

Article

A Deep Dive into SIP “Energy Carriers” Ammonia Combustion Research

From 2014 to 2018 Bunro Shiozawa served as Deputy Program Director of the SIP “Energy Carriers” initiative in Japan. Over the last year he has published a ten-part series of articles that describe and reflect on the research supported by the initiative. Part 4 covers ammonia combustion technologies. The first half of the article follows, in Shiozawa's English translation. The second half will be posted in the near future.

Article

Ammonia Gas Turbines on European R&D List

ETN Global’s latest R&D Recommendation was released in October 2018.  ETN stands for European Turbine Network and its technology of interest is the gas turbine.  The 2018 Recommendation is notable because it is the first that includes ammonia on the R&D agenda.

Article

Full program announced for the 2018 NH3 Event Europe

The second annual European Conference on Sustainable Ammonia Solutions has announced its full program, spread over two days, May 17 and 18, 2018, at Rotterdam Zoo in the Netherlands. The international cadre of speakers, representing a dozen countries from across Europe as well as the US, Canada, Israel, and Japan, will describe global developments in ammonia energy from the perspectives of industry, academia, and government agencies.

Article

254th ACS Meeting, Energy and Fuels Symposium “The Ammonia Economy” — Oxidation, Catalytic Cracking & Storage

In August of 2017 a symposium on the Ammonia Economy was held in Washington DC as part of the Energy and Fuels Division of the American Chemical Society (ACS) conference. The symposium was devised to explore the latest results from ammonia related research, including but not limited to; advances in the generation of ammonia, advances in the catalytic cracking of ammonia to nitrogen and hydrogen, ammonia storage and utilisation, detectors and sensors for ammonia, ammonia fuel cells and hydrogen from ammonia, ammonia combustion and ammonia safety.

Article

SIP “Energy Carriers” video: ammonia turbines, industrial furnaces, fuel cells

To demonstrate the progress of the SIP "Energy Carriers" program, the Japan Science and Technology Agency last week released a video, embedded below, that shows three of its ammonia fuel research and development projects in operation. R&D is often an abstract idea: this video shows what it looks like to generate power from ammonia. As it turns out, fuel cells aren't hugely photogenic. Nonetheless, if a picture is worth a thousand words, this will be a long article.

Article

Advances in Ammonia-Fired Gas Turbines Open Up Major Use Case

In the last 12 months ... Researchers seeking to fire gas turbines with ammonia made significant strides toward realization of commercial-scale machines in both the U.K. and Japan. This means that electricity generation has become a realistic near-term use-case for ammonia energy.

Article

Green Ammonia Consortium: Bright Prospects in Japan for Ammonia as an Energy Carrier

In the last 12 months ... In July 2017, 19 companies and three research institutions came together to form the Green Ammonia Consortium. Before this development, it was unclear whether ammonia would find a significant role in Japan’s hydrogen economy. In the wake of this announcement, however, ammonia seems to have claimed the leading position in the race among potential energy carriers.

Article

Major Development for Ammonia Energy in Japan

On July 25, the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) announced that a collection of companies and research institutions had come together to form a Green Ammonia Consortium.  The 22-member group will take over responsibility for the ammonia aspect of the Cross-Ministerial Strategic Innovation Program (SIP) Energy Carriers agenda when the SIP is discontinued at the end of fiscal 2018.  A JST press release states that the Consortium intends to develop a strategy for “forming [an] ammonia value chain,” promote demonstration projects that can further commercialization, and enable “Japanese industry to lead the world market.”

Article

Industrial demonstrations of ammonia fuel in Japan

Most of the ammonia energy projects I write about are in the research and development phase but, as I've said before, technology transfer from the academic lab to commercial deployment is moving swiftly - especially in Japan. Last week, Nikkei Asian Review published two articles outlining plans by major engineering and power firms to build utility-scale demonstrations using ammonia as a fuel for electricity generation. Both projects aim to reduce the carbon intensity of the Japanese electrical grid, incrementally but significantly, by displacing a portion of the fossil fuels with ammonia. The first project will generate power using an ammonia-coal mix, while the second will combine ammonia with natural gas.

Article

Ammonia-Fueled Gas Turbine Power Generation

Hideaki Kobayashi, professor at the Institute of Fluid Science at Tohoku University in Sendai, Japan, has developed the world’s first technology for direct combustion of ammonia in a gas turbine. The advance was made in cooperation with the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) under a program led by Norihiko Iki.

Article

Ammonia Turbine Power Generation with Reduced NOx

A common concern with ammonia fuel is that NOx emissions will be too high to control. However, in new research from Turkey, USA, and Japan, presented at this year's NH3 Fuel Conference in September 2016, two things became clear. First, NOx emissions can be reduced to less than 10ppm by employing good engineering design and exploiting the chemical properties of ammonia, which plays a dual role as both the fuel and the emissions-cleanup agent. Second, the deployment of ammonia-fueled turbines for power generation is not only feasible, but actively being developed, with demonstration units running today and improved demonstration projects currently in development.

Paper

Pure Ammonia Combustion Micro Gas Turbine System

To protect against global warming, a massive influx of renewable energy is expected. Although hydrogen is a renewable media, its storage and transportation in large quantity has some problems. Ammonia fuel, however, is a hydrogen energy carrier and carbon-free fuel, and its storage and transportation technology is already established. In the 1960s, development of ammonia combustion gas turbines was abandoned because combustion efficiency was unacceptably low [1]. Recent demand for hydrogen energy carriers has revived the interest in ammonia as fuel [2, 3]. In 2015, ammonia-combustion gas turbine power generation was reported in Japan using a 50-kW class micro gas…

Paper

Performance of Ammonia-Natural Gas Co-Fired Gas Turbine for Power Generation

Ammonia is paid special attention as renewable energy carrier [1-3], because it offers advantages in generation, transportation and utilization. Haber-Bosch method is already established as ammonia generation method; large amount of ammonia is already used as fertilizer and chemical raw material. Ammonia can be liquefied at room temperature. Its transport and storage system are already established. Ammonia is cheaper to transport than hydrogen. Ammonia can be used as carbon-free fuel in internal combustion engines as alternative to conventional hydrocarbon fuels. However, it has different combustion characteristics. For example, the nitrogen atom contained in the ammonia molecule, causes high NOx emission…

Paper

Two Stage Ammonia Combustion in a Gas Turbine like Combustor for Simultaneous NO and Unburnt Ammonia Reductions

Ammonia is expected not only as a hydrogen energy carrier but also as a carbon free fuel. Recently, ammonia fueled gas turbine combustor was successfully demonstrated. However, large amount of NOx was produced when ammonia burns because ammonia includes nitrogen atom in the ammonia molecule. In addition, unburnt ammonia concentration in exhaust gas also needs to be reduced. In this study, we proposed a combustion concept in order to reduce NO and unburnt ammonia concentrations in the exhaust gas simultaneously in a gas turbine like model swirl combustor. In this concept, two stage (rich – lean) combustion was employed. Two…

Paper

Development of Low-NOx Combustor of Micro Gas Turbine Firing Ammonia Gas

A massive influx of renewable energy is required in order to mitigate global warming. Although hydrogen is a renewable media, its storage and transportation in large quantity is difficult. Ammonia, however, is a hydrogen energy carrier, and its storage and transportation technology is already established. Although ammonia fuel combustion was studied in the 1960s in the USA, the development of an ammonia fuel gas turbine had been abandoned because combustion efficiency was unacceptably low [1]. Recent demand for hydrogen energy carrier revives the usage of ammonia fuel. The National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) in Japan, in…

Paper

Methods for Low NOx Combustion in Ammonia / Natural Gas Dual Fuel Gas Turbine Combustor

Ammonia is a carbon-free fuel, so it has potential to reduce carbon dioxide emission from power plants when used as a fuel. However, combustion characteristics of ammonia are notably different from hydrocarbon fuels, especially regarding NOx emission [1]. The nitrogen atom of the ammonia molecule may cause high NOx emission. Therefore, special techniques to reduce NOx emission are essential for gas turbine combustors which burn ammonia and natural gas. The results of our previous study [2] showed the characteristics of NOx emission in single-stage combustion. In this study, the concept for low-emission combustion in two-stage combustion has been examined numerically…

Paper

Combustion Emissions from NH3 Fuel Gas Turbine Power Generation Demonstrated

To protect against global warming, a massive influx of renewable energy is expected. Although H2 is a renewable media, its storage and transportation in large quantity is difficult. NH3 fuel, however, is an H2 energy carrier and carbon-free fuel, and its storage and transportation technology is already established. Although NH3 fuel combustion was studied in the 1960s in the USA, the development of an NH3 fuel gas turbine had been abandoned because combustion efficiency was unacceptably low [1]. Recent demand for H2 energy carrier revives the usage of NH3 fuel, but no one has attempted an actual design setup for…

Paper

Development of ammonia / natural gas dual fuel gas turbine combustor

NH3 is a carbon-free fuel, so it has the potential to reduce CO2 emission from the power plant when used as a fuel. However, NH3 has combustion characteristics different from conventional hydrocarbon fuels. The N atom in the ammonia molecule causes high NOx emission through combustion reactions. To develop a gas-turbine combustor, which burns a combination of NH3 and natural gas with controlled emissions, combustion characteristics have been studied experimentally and numerically by using a swirl-burner, which is typically used in gas-turbines. Detailed exhaust gas compositions of the burner have been measured under atmospheric pressure and fuel lean conditions. As…

Paper

Combustion characteristics of ammonia/air flames for a model swirl burner and an actual gas turbine combustor

Ammonia is expected not only as hydrogen energy carrier but also as carbon free fuel. For an industrial use of ammonia combustor, ammonia flame stabilized on a swirl combustor should be clarified. However, in order to realize an ammonia-fueled combustor, there are some issues to be solved, such as a difficulty of flame stabilization and reductions of NOx and ammonia emission. In this study, stabilization and emission characteristics of ammonia / air flames stabilized by a model swirl burner are investigated. The outer and inner diameters of the swirler are 24 mm and 14 mm, respectively, and the swirl number…

Paper

Power Generation and Flame Visualization of Micro Gas Turbine Firing Ammonia or Ammonia-Methane Mixture

A demonstration test with the aim to show the potential of ammonia-fired power plant is planned using a micro gas turbine. 50kW class turbine system firing kerosene is selected as a base model. A standard combustor is replaced to a prototype combustor which enables a bi-fuel supply of kerosene and ammonia gas. Diffusion combustion is employed to the prototype combustor due to its flame stability. 44kW power generation was achieved by 100% heat from ammonia gas. Although NOx concentration in the exhaust gas of ammonia combustion exceeded 500ppm, NOx removal equipment reduced NOx concentration below 10ppm. Over 30kW power generation…

Paper

Enhancement of reaction and stability of ammonia flames using hydrogen addition and swirling flow

Enhancement of reaction and stability of ammonia flames using hydrogen addition and swirling flow Akihiro Hayakawa*, Akinori Ichikawa, Yoshiyuki Arakawa, Taku Kudo and Hideaki Kobayashi, Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University

Paper

Combustion characteristics of ammonia/natural gas dual fuel burner for gas turbine combustor

Combustion characteristics of ammonia/natural gas dual fuel burner for gas turbine combustor Shintaro Ito*, Soichiro Kato, Tsukasa Saito, Toshiro Fujimori, IHI Corporation; Hideaki Kobayashi, Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University

Paper

Micro Gas Turbine Firing Ammonia

Micro Gas Turbine Firing Ammonia Norihiko Iki*, Osamu Kurata, Takayuki Matsunuma, Takahiro Inoue, Masato Suzuki, Taku Tsujimura and Hirohide Furutani, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Fukushima Renewable Energy Institute (FREA); Hideaki Kobayashi, Akihiro Hayakawa, Yoshiyuki Arakawa, Masanori Ichikawa, Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University

Paper

Fundamental Characteristics of Ammonia/Air Premixed Laminar Flames

Fundamental flame characteristics must be required for the design of ammonia fueled combustors. However, few studies of ammonia combustion have been conducted. In this study, fundamental ammonia/air premixed laminar flame characteristics, such as NO formation/reduction mechanisms and laminar burning velocity, were experimentally and numerically investigated. NO mole fraction in burned gas from ammonia/air premixed flames were investigated using a stainless-steel nozzle burner. Experiments were conducted at various equivalence ratios and pressures. As a result, NO mole fraction in burned gas reduced with the increase in equivalence ratio and pressure. Formation/reduction mechanisms of NO were numerically investigated. Laminar burning velocity and…