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Ammonia – Could it replace HFO/LSFO?

The core of this presentation deals with the nature of ammonia, its natural characteristics that make it a future fuel solution candidate, the safety measures that need to be applied in order to carry it on board without endangering lives, environment & property, as well as whether this would be a feasible and cost- or risk-effective solution. For a long time, a lot of discussions have been centered around this subject, now bringing it to the immediate forefront & creating various questions that we will aim to answer to the interested individuals’, ship-managers’, businesses’, ship-owners’ and corporations’ satisfaction. Lloyd’s Register –…

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Life-cycle analysis of green ammonia and its application as fertilizer building block

Conventionally, ammonia is produced from natural gas via steam methane reforming, water-gas shift reaction, and Haber-Bosch process. The process uses fossil fuels extensively and leads to 2.7 ton of CO2 emission per ton ammonia produced. With ammonia being the second largest chemical produced in the world, its production accounts for approximately 2% of worldwide fossil fuel use and generates over 420 million tons of CO2 annually. To decarbonize the ammonia sector, green ammonia synthesis pathways are of increasing interest. Green ammonia originates from air, water, and renewable electricity, and thus could be produced with low or zero carbon emissions. Since…

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Energy Storage through Electrochemical Ammonia Synthesis Using Proton-Conducting Ceramics

In this presentation, we provide an overview of an ambitious project to store renewable energy through electrochemical synthesis of ammonia. The joint project between the Colorado School of Mines (Golden, CO) and FuelCell Energy, Inc. (Danbury, CT) is supported through the U.S. Department of Energy ARPA-E ‘REFUEL’ program. The research and development team seeks to harness the unique properties of proton-conducting ceramics to activate chemical and electrochemical reactions for efficient and cost-effective synthesis of ammonia. The system concept is shown in Figure 1; renewable electricity is used to drive electrolysis of the H2O feedstock to form hydrogen. This electrochemically produced…

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Microwave Catalytic Synthesis of Ammonia for Energy Storage and Transformation

This paper presents an innovative approach of producing energy-dense, carbon-neutral liquid ammonia as a means of energy carrier. The approach synergistically integrates microwave reaction chemistry with novel heterogeneous catalysis that decouples N2 activation from high temperature and high pressure reaction, altering reaction pathways and lowering activation energy. Results have shown that ammonia synthesis can be carried out at 280 ℃ and ambient pressure to achieve ~1 mmol NH3/g cat. /hour over supported Ru catalyst systems. Adding promoters of K, Ce and Ba has significantly improved the ammonia production rate over Ru-based catalysts that could be attributing to enhanced electromagnetic sensitivity…

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300°C Proton-Exchange Membrane for Low-Pressure Electrolytic Ammonia Synthesis

The two North Dakota universities and Proton OnSite are developing a 300°C-capable polymer–inorganic composite (PIC) proton exchange membrane for low-pressure (15-psi) ammonia synthesis. The PIC membrane comprises an inorganic proton conductor strategically composited within a high-temperature polymer to enable a proton conductivity of 10-2 siemens/centimeter at 300°C. Integrated with appropriate low-cost anode and cathode catalysts in a membrane–electrode assembly, the gas-impermeable PIC membrane is projected to enable ammonia production at a total energy input of about 6400 kilowatt-hours/ton (kWh/ton), versus about 8500 kWh/ton for state-of-the-art Haber Bosch-based ammonia production. The PIC membrane will also have application in high-temperature water electrolysis…

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Optimizing Absorptive Separation for Intensification of Ammonia Production

High pressure requirements of Haber-Bosch process imposes substantial operating (e.g., compression) and capital (compressor cost, advanced costly alloys, thick reactor casing, etc.) expenses in the ammonia production. Cost considerations force ammonia producers to take advantage of the economy of scale to drive down the manufacture cost, while small and energy-efficient processes that can be powered with off-grid renewable energy are required for ammonia-mediated hydrogen economy. Small-scale reaction-absorption process is proposed to be a viable technology to reduce the operating pressure requirements of Haber-Bosch process.1–4 Here, we present an overview of our efforts to further intensify ammonia production via reaction-absorption process.…

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Sustainable Ammonia Production from Sun, Air and Water

There is an ever growing demand for ammonia production that already reached globally 200 million tons per year by 2018 and is forecasted to increase to over 350 million tons per year by 2050 [1]. The application segment is dominated by the fertilizer industry, since the most important fertilizer and the world’s most widely produced chemical is urea. Ammonia is synthesized via the Haber-Bosch process, for which the required hydrogen and nitrogen are currently provided by using fossil fuels. This work proposes a novel approach to produce ammonia from the raw materials water and air only by utilizing solar energy…

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Starfire Energy’s 10 Kg/Day Rapid Ramp NH3 System Development

Starfire Energy is building a 10 kg/day NH3 synthesis system using its low pressure Rapid Ramp NH3 process. The system includes hydrogen production by proton exchange membrane electrolyzer, nitrogen production by pressure swing adsorption, NH3 synthesis, and liquid NH3 storage. The tight coupling of the hydrogen, nitrogen, and NH3 processes require minimal reactant buffering. The system design, status, and preliminary performance will be discussed.

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Demonstration and Optimization of Green Ammonia Production Operation Responding to Fluctuating Hydrogen Production from Renewable Energy

Ammonia is a promising hydrogen carrier to transport green hydrogen from overseas to Japan at lower cost and resulting in lower lifecycle CO2 emission. Low carbon ammonia will be produced by fossil fuel reforming with CCS or EOR at the early stage of the introduction of ammonia fuel to the market. Green ammonia production from renewable sources is the ultimate goal, but there are some issues to commercialize. The low capacity factor, which is caused by the fluctuation of solar irradiation or wind speed, is a big issue which leads to ammonia production costs. In this presentation, we would like…