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Our Improved Farm Tractor Ammonia and Hydrogen Fueling System

We have a large farm tractor that is fueled by a mixture of ammonia and hydrogen, or hydrogen alone. We will briefly describe the fueling and ignition improvements that have been made to the engine, and quantify the performance increases. These improvements can be applied to other internal combustion engine applications. This tractor runs only on renewable and CO2 free fuels.

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Arpa-E Refuel Program: Distributed Production of Ammonia and Its Conversion to Energy

Ammonia, which has high energy density in easily produced liquid form and can be converted to electric or motive power, is considered to be an almost ideal non-carbon energy vector in addition to its common use as a fertilizer. It can be manufactured anywhere using the Haber-Bosch process, effectively stored, transported and used in combustion engines and fuel cells as well as a hydrogen carrier. Transition from fossil fuels as the energy source and feedstock to intermittent renewable energy sources will require a shift from large scale Haber-Bosch plants (1,000 – 1,500 t/day) to distributed ammonia production matching electrical power…

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Ammonia as an Energy Carrier – Update from the Netherlands

Proton Ventures specializes in ammonia and energy related matters in four ways: Terminal storage and handling (bulk) NFUEL Small scale ammonia production DeNOx and N2O removal systems Battolyser Technology (electrolysis and battery storage in a single appliance) Recently, Proton Ventures welcomed new venture capital from Koolen Industries allowing further growth, development and market penetration of the new small scale ammonia production technology. Momentum is increasing: across the globe, we have some great leads in various stages of development. Can multiple small scale production trains actually be a smart solution for the larger production capacity requirements when fluctuation of either the…

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Case Study of Ammonia Production in the Island States Using Ocean Thermal Energy

The world’s oceans are the largest collectors and storage of solar energy and have an enormous potential to supply growing worldwide energy demands, commodity products like ammonia and fresh water. This case study focuses on the island states for implementation of the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) in the foreseeable future within two decades. Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and other island states exclusively rely on petroleum-liquid based power generation, specifically fuel oil and diesel. For example, power generating capacities of Mauritius, Reunion, St Thomas and St Croix are 480 MW, 435 MW, 200 MW and 120 MW, respectively. Fossil…

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Safety of Ammonia As Hydrogen and Energy Carriers

Ammonia (NH3) is liquefied at 1 MPa and 25 °C, and has a highest volumetric hydrogen density of 10.7 kg H2 /100L. It has a high gravimetric hydrogen density of 17.8 wt%. The heat of formation of NH3 is about 1/10 of combustion heat of hydrogen. NH3 has advantages as a hydrogen carrier for fuel cell vehicles and an energy carrier for power plants. In this research, the purpose is to figure out regulations for safety of NH3 in the world, and survey NH3 accident. We also characterize water as a NH3 absorbent. Regulations for flammability and health hazard are…

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Ammonia As Hydrogen Carrier to Unlock the Full Potential of Green Renewables

For decades, grid-scale energy storage has been used to balance load and demand within an energy generation system composed mainly of base load power sources enabling thus to large nuclear or thermal generating plant to operate at peak efficiencies. Energy storage has contributed over the time to meet peak demand and regulate frequency beside peak fossil fuel power plant who usually provided the bulk of the required energy. In the aforementioned context where inherent variability of the power generation asset was mainly a minor issue, energy storage capacity remains nevertheless limited for economic reason storing electricity during low electricity demand…

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Safe and Effective Application of Ammonia As a Marine Fuel

To achieve significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions in shipping and enable ship owner’s to eventually phase them out entirely renewable fuels, such as ammonia, play a crucial role. However, much is still unknown regarding application of ammonia as a marine fuel. An ammonia carrier is used as basis to perform the study identifying the marine technical feasibility and performance of ammonia. Furthermore, a safety analysis is performed on the system level providing the first design principles for ammonia powered vessels. The results of this theoretical research will be presented including an outlook on new developments on the implementation of…

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Green Ammonia Production Integrated into US Wholesale Power Markets

The High Plains and Rocky Mountain regions of the United States have some of the best renewable energy resources in the world. As more non-dispatchable wind and solar generation is integrated into the power system, it is impacting wholesale power markets. Average wholesale electricity power prices are falling while their volatility is increasing. This creates opportunities for large flexible loads that are capable of consuming energy while prices are low and not consuming energy when prices are high. Result from an analysis of dispatchable fully electric ammonia production integrated into the power system are presented.

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High-Efficiency Two-Stroke Internal Combustion Engine

Long-term storage of electricity generated from variable renewable energy resources sources can be achieved by converting the electricity into the chemical energy of a combustible fuel. The conversion process usually involves electrolysis of water to produce hydrogen, which may either be stored directly as a high pressure gas or converted to a more energy-dense fuel such as ammonia. In either case, the fuel can be stored for days, weeks, or even months and then, when its energy is needed, it can be burned in a heat engine. The heat engine can be used to drive an electrical generator, thereby reclaiming…

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Technical & Economic Study for Commercial Ships with HFO, LNG and NH; As Fuel

Objective/Scope: International Maritime Organization (IMO) announced the initial strategy for GHG (Green-House Gas) emission of ships according to “Paris Climate Agreement”. In order to resolve the GHG emission issue from ships, a demand for GHG solution technologies is increasing such as alternative fuels and energies. Recently, some reports by some companies and research centers have been presented some positive results on NH3 for ship GHG reduction. And MAN Energy Solutions presented some development plans on ammonia engines for ship CO2 emission reduction. DSME (Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering) also thinks that ammonia can be one of options as ship fuel…