Paper

A new hydrogen storage technology for buffering the input to green ammonia plants

The move to production of green ammonia using hydrogen produced from renewable energy raises the need to manage a variable production of hydrogen with a demand that has traditionally been constant 24/7. Whilst ammonia plants have some ability to ramp production rates, there are limits to this and any operation at reduced capacity will mean that their annualized cost recovery must be amortised over reduced production. Thus there is an apparent need for buffer storage corresponding to one or two days of hydrogen feedstock. This talk will introduce a new approach to underground storage of hydrogen that is being commercialized…

Paper

Ammonia trade and embedded emissions pricing

Emissions (carbon) pricing has been theoretically and empirically proven to be the most efficient means of correcting the market failure caused by greenhouse emissions externalities. None-the-less, political constraints have prevented emissions pricing from forming a stable component of Australian climate and energy policy. For export-facing industries such as ammonia, however, emissions pricing in export markets is likely to matter more than Australian policy. In particular, the European Commission is set to propose a carbon-border adjustment mechanism in July 2021. The US is also considering ways of ensuring their industries are not disadvantaged as a result of its substantially ramped up…

Paper

Close-coupling variable green hydrogen production with small scale ammonia production

To deploy green ammonia projects at the scale and speed required to meet decarbonisation targets, we have to revisit conventional methods. There are numerous challenges in coupling renewable energy with ammonia production. This presentation proposes to use ‘Reference Plants’ as building blocks to closely couple green hydrogen and green ammonia plants.

Paper

Impact of scale on levelized cost of green ammonia for international energy transport

An oft-touted benefit of green hydrogen and ammonia is the modularity of production technologies, which may enable the use of micro-plants for distributed green fuel production without losing the benefits normally associated with economies of scale. To that end, a number of very small ammonia projects are being considered in Australia with electrolyser installations ~30 MW (e.g. QNP). At the opposite end of the spectrum, however, the Asian Renewable Energy hub has announced intentions to install 15 GW of electrolysis capacity. We explore the components of the full value chain of ammonia, from electricity generation to green ammonia delivery, and…

Paper

A strategic pathway to a sustainable shipping industry powered by Australian renewable energy

Australia is lucky. We have bountiful natural resources, buried in the ground, streaming from the sun and coursing through the air. Along with our geographic position on the apex of the vast Asian Pacific trade route we are in the perfect situation to initiate a new industry.   Oceania are connecting together these key aspects of Australia’s DNA. Our ambition is to leverage the abundant energy sources in the north-west of Australia to supply green ammonia, then utilise the best-in-class bunker vessel to deliver sustainable shipping fuel to an industry that’s responsible for 3% of global GHG emissions. To achieve…

Paper

Production and utilization of green ammonia: KIER’s current status and future plans

Green ammonia, a carbon-free chemical, has been drawing much attention as a hydrogen carrier and carbon-neutral fuel for trading green hydrogen and building a carbon-neutral society, respectively, because it has higher volumetric hydrogen content and energy density than liquid hydrogen. And the infrastructure for storing and transporting ammonia is already in place. To implement green ammonia into the current energy systems, technologies on low-cost green ammonia production, decomposition, and utilization are essential. This presentation will show the KIER’s current status and perspective on the development of low-cost green ammonia production and utilization.