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Dynamic Analysis of Flex-gNH3 – a Green Ammonia Synthesis Process

The future of a decarbonised ammonia production is seen as the alignment of the intermittent production of renewable energy, energy demands and ammonia process features. The current Haber-Bosch ammonia synthesis process can indeed be altered to enable green and sustainable ammonia production primarily being driven by renewable electricity. However, this will require to enhance current commercial Haber-Bosch (H-B) process flexibility with modifications to redefine the conventional H–B process with a new optimised control. The technical feasibility of green-ammonia (gNH3) process had been widely discussed and analysed focusing on its energy efficiency, the development of small-scale, distributed, modularised processes that can…

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Maritime Ammonia Fuel – Stepping Forward

Clearly, by now it is a great understatement to say that ammonia as a maritime fuel has potential or could be developed as an alternative to fossil maritime fuels. Enablers for maritime ammonia fuel are being developed and we have moved past simple potential. In terms of on board technology, supply and other critical areas, maritime ammonia fuel is stepping forward. However, we are only starting out and the road ahead remains long, unclear and of course paved with many potential barriers. We welcome therefore the dedication and quality of work being undertaken by many different entities to help untangle complexity and illustrate pathways. Within…

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Starfire Energy’s Prometheus ammonia cracking technology

The lowest cost way to use ammonia as a fuel is as an intact NH3 molecule. However, its slow flame speed can cause challenges managing flame stability, ammonia slip, and nitrogen oxide formation. Some fuel cells also require hydrogen, rather than ammonia. Ammonia cracking can solve these problems by providing either a NH3 + H2 + N2 blend or, with appropriate processing, pure hydrogen. Starfire Energy’s Prometheus cracking technology is a unique approach that uses an oxide catalyst bonded to a metal foil substrate. It provides excellent opportunities to power the cracking reaction with both waste combustion heat or purpose-generated…

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The Future of Ammonia Cracking

The global energy sector stands before a massive transformation, going from the present state mainly driven by fossil-based resources and changing into a green future where renewable power will take over as the key energy source. In this transformation new market arises and new technologies are needed. One example is the ammonia cracking technology which only has limited use today. One key issue to solve in the future is the mismatch between where renewable power is available and where energy is needed. Today electrolysis is being commercialized in great scale transforming renewable power into hydrogen. As hydrogen is very complicated…

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Photocatalytic Decomposition of Ammonia

In its recently released 6th assessment report, the International Panel on Climate Change  unequivocally stated that human activity is the primary driver of observed global warming effects over the  past 150 years. Broad alignment with this assertion by the public and private sectors has been the driving  force behind decarbonization efforts and various net-zero emissions goals. To date, decarbonization has  focused on increasing renewable power capacity and electrification of mobility with few solutions provided  for “hard-to-abate” sectors (transport, shipping, aviation, and heavy industry (cement, steel, and chemicals))  that are reliant on inexpensive petrochemicals as fuels / feedstocks and contribute nearly…

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Catalytic Membrane Reactor for H2-Production from Ammonia

The ability to store massive amounts of dispatchable energy is key for the development of reliable and flexible energy systems, particularly under the new energy concept where large renewable power plants increasingly farther from end users will operate together with distributed wind and solar power plants. Massive energy storage enables a wide set of features ranging from improved supply and demand adjustment, increased system reliability and decarbonization of energy intensive sectors including heating services, industry, and transport. Within this framework, green hydrogen outstands as a key solution to unleash the full potential of renewable energy sources to decarbonize energy applications…

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Green Ammonia Opportunities in Utility Resilience/Storage and Logistics

The presentation will describe projects being undertaken in the Western United States utilizing low cost and redundant renewable energy resources to generate green hydrogen that would be converted to green ammonia; that ammonia will be utilized in various ways but will provide a readily available source of energy for use as an energy storage system by utilities (with a focus on municipal utilities) that will use these systems for energy resiliency and storage, as well as industry and consumer facing users such as fleet fueling (as ammonia, hydrogen, and electrical power for EVs), as well as maritime applications.

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IHI’s Development of Ammonia Combustions Technologies / Fuel Ammonia and Hydrogen Solutions

IHI, as a pioneer in the development of the ammonia value chain, has been developing fuel ammonia technology for the last decade. Utilizing existing infrastructure that is either already in place or that can be readily modified, fuel ammonia is highly anticipated as a critical resource to reach a carbon-neutral society. In the presentation, IHI will highlight its involvement in the development of combustion technologies of fuel ammonia for power generation.  A specific focus will be placed on the ongoing development and implementation of 20% ammonia co-combustion in existing coal fired power plants.  The presentation will feature the JERA demonstration…

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Impact of ammonia as a fuel / co-fuel on NOx emissions

Ammonia is a hydrogen-based, carbon-free energy carrier. It has good energy density (22.5 MJ/kg) and can be liquefied (about 10 bar at 298 K). With the increasing demand to lower the CO2 emissions worldwide, pure ammonia combustion or co-combustion with a conventional fuel is an alternative solution in turbines, gas engines, power plants, furnaces, and cement kilns. The major challenges with the use of ammonia as a fuel are lowered heat flux and increased NOx emissions. These parameters were analyzed in Linde’s lab-scale tests with pure ammonia as well as mixtures of ammonia and natural gas. Tests were conducted with…