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Safe and Effective Application of Ammonia As a Marine Fuel

To achieve significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions in shipping and enable ship owner’s to eventually phase them out entirely renewable fuels, such as ammonia, play a crucial role. However, much is still unknown regarding application of ammonia as a marine fuel. An ammonia carrier is used as basis to perform the study identifying the marine technical feasibility and performance of ammonia. Furthermore, a safety analysis is performed on the system level providing the first design principles for ammonia powered vessels. The results of this theoretical research will be presented including an outlook on new developments on the implementation of…

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Technical & Economic Study for Commercial Ships with HFO, LNG and NH; As Fuel

Objective/Scope: International Maritime Organization (IMO) announced the initial strategy for GHG (Green-House Gas) emission of ships according to “Paris Climate Agreement”. In order to resolve the GHG emission issue from ships, a demand for GHG solution technologies is increasing such as alternative fuels and energies. Recently, some reports by some companies and research centers have been presented some positive results on NH3 for ship GHG reduction. And MAN Energy Solutions presented some development plans on ammonia engines for ship CO2 emission reduction. DSME (Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering) also thinks that ammonia can be one of options as ship fuel…

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Our Improved Farm Tractor Ammonia and Hydrogen Fueling System

We have a large farm tractor that is fueled by a mixture of ammonia and hydrogen, or hydrogen alone. We will briefly describe the fueling and ignition improvements that have been made to the engine, and quantify the performance increases. These improvements can be applied to other internal combustion engine applications. This tractor runs only on renewable and CO2 free fuels.

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Life-cycle analysis of green ammonia and its application as fertilizer building block

Conventionally, ammonia is produced from natural gas via steam methane reforming, water-gas shift reaction, and Haber-Bosch process. The process uses fossil fuels extensively and leads to 2.7 ton of CO2 emission per ton ammonia produced. With ammonia being the second largest chemical produced in the world, its production accounts for approximately 2% of worldwide fossil fuel use and generates over 420 million tons of CO2 annually. To decarbonize the ammonia sector, green ammonia synthesis pathways are of increasing interest. Green ammonia originates from air, water, and renewable electricity, and thus could be produced with low or zero carbon emissions. Since…

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Material Discovery and Investigation of Novel Y Containing Ru Catalysts for Low Temperature Ammonia Decomposition

Liquid ammonia can be used as an alternative hydrogen carrier and can be decomposed over catalysts to create a high purity hydrogen stream for fuel cell applications. Ammonia decomposition is typically catalyzed using supported ruthenium catalysts. Current ruthenium catalysts are expensive and often require reaction temperatures of 650 °C to attain complete conversion [1]. For the hydrogen produced from ammonia decomposition to be efficiently used in proton exchange membrane fuel cells, operating temperatures need to be considerably lowered and effluent concentrations of ammonia need to be minimized to avoid poisoning of the membrane [2]. Therefore, it is of interest to…

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Ignition Delay Times of Diluted Mixtures of Ammonia/Methane at Elevated Pressures

The present worldwide concern with global warming has stimulated the development of carbon-neutral energy technologies in order to mitigate the need of fossil fuels and the emission of greenhouse gases. In this sense, ammonia (NH3) is regarded as one of the most viable alternatives to produce carbon-free energy, presenting high energy density and ease of storage and handling [1]. Furthermore, due to the long-lasting use of ammonia in the fertilizer and refrigerant industries, its possible implementation as a fuel presents an unmatched economic feasibility, when compared to other carbon-free alternatives [2]. However, ammonia has proven to be more resilient to…

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Demonstration and Optimization of Green Ammonia Production Operation Responding to Fluctuating Hydrogen Production from Renewable Energy

Ammonia is a promising hydrogen carrier to transport green hydrogen from overseas to Japan at lower cost and resulting in lower lifecycle CO2 emission. Low carbon ammonia will be produced by fossil fuel reforming with CCS or EOR at the early stage of the introduction of ammonia fuel to the market. Green ammonia production from renewable sources is the ultimate goal, but there are some issues to commercialize. The low capacity factor, which is caused by the fluctuation of solar irradiation or wind speed, is a big issue which leads to ammonia production costs. In this presentation, we would like…

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High Flow Ammonia Cracking between 400-600°C

Traditional ammonia cracking is achieved at 850-950 °C in the presence of a nickel catalyst. The reaction is highly endothermic, and maintaining these high temperatures at high flow rates of ammonia gas can be difficult. Here, we present work using our advanced ammonia synthesis catalyst in an ammonia cracking setup. We use a metallic monolith catalyst support to minimize pressure drop at high flow rates. Full NH3 cracking occurs at 600 °C, with the onset of cracking at 400 °C. An output flame can be achieved with a fully tunable ratio of hydrogen to ammonia, depending on the temperature setpoint…

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Carbon-Free H2 Production from NH3 Triggered at Ambient Temperature with Oxide Supported Ru Catalysts

Hydrogen produced from renewable energy has received a lot of attentions as a clean energy and development of a hydrogen storage and transportation system using hydrogen carrier has been greatly demanded. Among different kinds of hydrogen carrier, NH3 is regarded as one of the promising candidates, due to high energy density, high hydrogen capacity, and ease of liquification at room temperature. Furthermore, a carbon-free hydrogen storage and transportation system could be realized by using NH3 as hydrogen carrier. In this system, hydrogen produced from NH3 is used in engines, fuel cells, and turbines. However, use of NH3 as a hydrogen…

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300°C Proton-Exchange Membrane for Low-Pressure Electrolytic Ammonia Synthesis

The two North Dakota universities and Proton OnSite are developing a 300°C-capable polymer–inorganic composite (PIC) proton exchange membrane for low-pressure (15-psi) ammonia synthesis. The PIC membrane comprises an inorganic proton conductor strategically composited within a high-temperature polymer to enable a proton conductivity of 10-2 siemens/centimeter at 300°C. Integrated with appropriate low-cost anode and cathode catalysts in a membrane–electrode assembly, the gas-impermeable PIC membrane is projected to enable ammonia production at a total energy input of about 6400 kilowatt-hours/ton (kWh/ton), versus about 8500 kWh/ton for state-of-the-art Haber Bosch-based ammonia production. The PIC membrane will also have application in high-temperature water electrolysis…