Paper

Distribution of Ammonia as an Energy Carrier

Ammonia can be used as an energy carrier to produce a low carbon fuel that can be transported around the globe. Infrastructure for transporting ammonia is already in place, but as more ammonia is used as an energy source, addition transportation capacity will be required. This presentation will discuss technical and economic data for ammonia distribution. The focus will be on pipeline and ocean transport. A perspective will be provided to identify the typical required infrastructure to produce, store and distribute of the ammonia for the equivalent power plant energy requirement.

Paper

Ammonia Fuel Standard, where do we go from here?

A discussion focused on the path to creating an ammonia fuel standard. Exploring the current state of the Ammonia Fuel Product Standards, its parallels to the current ammonia industry, and the challenges that need to be overcome to develop a meaningful standard for all stakeholders in the ammonia fuel supply chain.

Article

Japan’s NYK and partners to develop ammonia fueled and fueling vessels

In recent weeks, the Japanese shipping company NYK Line has announced a series of high-profile research and development collaborations that aim to establish ammonia fueled vessels and fuel supply. Its partners in these projects include classification society Class NK, engine manufacturer IHI Power Systems, and shipbuilder Japan Marine United Corporation. Three vessel types have been announced, so far, including an ammonia-fueled ammonia gas carrier, an ammonia barge for offshore bunkering, and an ammonia-fueled tugboat (for navigating the barge). Pushing beyond the initial research phase, these collaborations aim for commercialization and to put these vessels “into practical use.”

Paper

Ammonia Fuel Safety

This paper introduces the existing literature on the safety of using ammonia as a fuel, which provides comparative data for a range of traditional and alternative fuels and energy carriers. The studies reviewed conclude that risk levels associated with using ammonia as a fuel are “similar to those of gasoline,” or “similar, if not lower than for the other fuels,” also including hydrogen, methanol, LPG, and CNG. Ammonia as a fuel can meet all “acceptable” risk levels in even the most stringent regulatory jurisdictions. Addressing popular misconceptions and fears by providing robust sources for quantitative data on the dangers of…