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Impact of ammonia as a fuel / co-fuel on NOx emissions

Ammonia is a hydrogen-based, carbon-free energy carrier. It has good energy density (22.5 MJ/kg) and can be liquefied (about 10 bar at 298 K). With the increasing demand to lower the CO2 emissions worldwide, pure ammonia combustion or co-combustion with a conventional fuel is an alternative solution in turbines, gas engines, power plants, furnaces, and cement kilns. The major challenges with the use of ammonia as a fuel are lowered heat flux and increased NOx emissions. These parameters were analyzed in Linde’s lab-scale tests with pure ammonia as well as mixtures of ammonia and natural gas. Tests were conducted with…

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Development of Low-NOx Combustor of Micro Gas Turbine Firing Ammonia Gas

A massive influx of renewable energy is required in order to mitigate global warming. Although hydrogen is a renewable media, its storage and transportation in large quantity is difficult. Ammonia, however, is a hydrogen energy carrier, and its storage and transportation technology is already established. Although ammonia fuel combustion was studied in the 1960s in the USA, the development of an ammonia fuel gas turbine had been abandoned because combustion efficiency was unacceptably low [1]. Recent demand for hydrogen energy carrier revives the usage of ammonia fuel. The National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) in Japan, in…

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Effects of the Thickness of the Burner Rim, the Velocities of Fuel and Air on Extinction Limit of Ammonia Coaxial Jet Diffusion Flame

Ammonia is regarded as one of the alternative fuels because CO2 doesn’t emit during the combustion process of ammonia. Ammonia also has advantages in storage and transportation. In addition, ammonia has a potential to be a “hydrogen carrier” because of high amount of hydrogen content. However, there are several combustion related problems such as the low flammability, the low radiative power and the high NOx formation. To use ammonia as a fuel, therefore, it is necessary to understand the fundamental phenomena of the combustibility of the ammonia such as laminar burning velocity, strength of the radiation and extinction limit. Since…

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Ammonia as a Key to Meeting the Fuel Demand of China

Currently, China is facing a challenge of increasing its energy consumption and simultaneously decreasing its emissions. Particularly, the desire of owning a car is so strong in China that it cannot be easily mitigated by high pricing or taxing. This paper presents the statistical results of fuel consumption in China and predicts the fuel demand in near future, it then compares the fuel demand of China with the fuel production scale of the world. It is concluded that China must utilize clean alternative fuels to meet the fast increasing demand for automotive fuels. The price, distribution infrastructure, and thermodynamic properties…

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Solar Hydrogen and Ammonia System Status

Further development results of the Raphael Schmuecker Memorial Solar Hydrogen and Ammonia prototype plant, discussing making of Nitrogen and Ammonia, the energy usage, and the general system efficiencies and output. We would also like to discuss our results of dyno testing the Hydrogen / Hydrogen & Ammonia tractor engine and further developments in ammonia fuel vaporization.

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Simulation of Fuel Economy of Gasoline-Ethanol-Ammonia Tertiary Fuel Blends for a Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle

With the depletion of petroleum resources around the world, a need to have cleaner and fuel efficient automotive technologies and alternative fuel sources has become prominent. Hybrid electric vehicles and sustainable energy sources have gained a high momentum in fulfilling this requirement. To satisfy both needs ammonia, which has been used for a long period of time as a sustainable and carbon free transport fuel can be combined with hybrid electric vehicles. Ammonia when blended with gasoline can be used as an alternate fuel to power existing internal combustion engines. Such blends similar to ethanol-gasoline fuel blends would provide a…

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Micro Gas Turbine Operation with Kerosene and Ammonia

A demonstration test with the aim to show the potential of ammonia-fired power plant is planned using a micro gas turbine. 50kW class turbine system firing kerosene is selected as a base model. A standard combustor is replaced with a prototype combustor which enables a bi-fuel supply of kerosene and ammonia gas. Diffusion combustion is employed to the prototype combustor due to its flame stability. Demonstration test of co-firing of kerosene and ammonia gas was achieved to check the functionality of the each component of the micro gas turbine. The gas turbine started firing kerosene and increased its electric power…

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Ammonia as an alternate transport fuel: Emulsifiers for gasoline ammonia fuel blends and real time engine performance

Ammonia is a carbon-free solution to energy crisis without strenuous changes to the existing infrastructure. Ammonia and hydrocarbon liquid fuel blends can be used to power existing IC engines as an alternative transportation fuel. Due to the structure of ammonia and hydrocarbon molecules an emulsifying agent has to be used to obtain a stable and high molality solution. Feasibility of ammonia and gasoline liquid fuel blends using ethanol and methanol as emulsifiers was studied in this research. A small thermo-stated vapor liquid equilibrium (VLE) high pressure cell was used to study the solubility of ammonia in gasoline. A larger VLE…

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Recent progress on the Ammonia-Gasoline and the Ammonia-Diesel Dual Fueled Internal Combustion Engines in Korea

Both a spark ignition engine and a compression ignition engine are considered to use ammonia as primary fuel in this study. First, in a spark ignition engine, an ammonia-gasoline dual fuel system was developed and both ammonia and gasoline are injected separately into the intake manifold in liquid phase. As ammonia burns 1/6 time slower than gasoline, the spark timing is needed to be advanced near 40 degree before top dead center. The test engine showed quite high variation in the power output with ammonia supply more than 70% of the total heat value. As a result, 70% of gasoline…