New ammonia-powered vessels: Newcastlemax & Panamax class

Rio Tinto and AngloEastern have announced they will develop Newcastlemax class, ammonia-powered bulk carriers. The dry cargo vessels will be the maximum size allowed to dock in the Port of Newcastle, Australia: an important coal & iron ore port in global maritime trade. Both AngloEastern and Rio Tinto are members of an Itochu-led maritime fuel study investigating the use of ammonia. In Japan, a "greener ships" consortium has produced its first-ever ammonia-powered design: a Panamax-class bulk carrier. And the China State Shipbuilding Corporation will develop two 93,000 m3 ammonia-powered ammonia carrier vessels, with Bureau Veritas granting AiP for the vessel design.


Ammonia combustion analysis: powertrains, turbines & power generation

This week we explore four updates in ammonia combustion R&D:

1. A team from the University of Cambridge has shown merchant vessels are the strongest candidates for conversion to run on ammonia powertrains, with cargo capacity losses of 4-9% able to be feasibly offset by operators.

2. Researchers at the University of Minnesota have successfully tested a thermochemical recuperation (TCR) reactor to improve the efficiency of a dual-fuel, diesel-ammonia compression ignition engine by minimising ammonia slip.

3. A global team led by Cardiff University researchers has revealed some of the inner workings of ammonia combustion in gas turbine flames.

4. A global team has produced a cradle-to-gate environmental assessment for ammonia production and ammonia-based electricity generation, suggesting that renewable and nuclear ammonia have a significant role to play in decarbonising the power sector.


WinGD to develop ammonia maritime engines by 2025

Swiss-based engine developer WinGD has announced that its current portfolio of low-speed maritime engines will be ready to operate on methanol and ammonia by 2024 and 2025 respectively. Although WinGD's diesel-fueled X Engine series will require retrofits, the X-DF Engine series is already designed to run on biogas and will not require major modifications to run on methanol or ammonia.


Kawasaki Heavy’s LPG/ammonia carrier in demand

Kawasaki Heavy Industry's 86,700 m3, LPG and "liquefied ammonia gas" (LAG) carrier has been ordered for the fifth time in 2021. K Line, Eneos (two vessels) and now NYK (also two vessels) will take delivery of the VLGCs from KHI's Sakaide shipyards in 2023 (K Line and Eneos), and 2024 (NYK). The flexibility of the dual-purpose LPG/ammonia carrier is key to its newfound popularity.


Impact of ammonia as a fuel / co-fuel on NOx emissions

Ammonia is a hydrogen-based, carbon-free energy carrier. It has good energy density (22.5 MJ/kg) and can be liquefied (about 10 bar at 298 K). With the increasing demand to lower the CO2 emissions worldwide, pure ammonia combustion or co-combustion with a conventional fuel is an alternative solution in turbines, gas engines, power plants, furnaces, and cement kilns. The major challenges with the use of ammonia as a fuel are lowered heat flux and increased NOx emissions. These parameters were analyzed in Linde’s lab-scale tests with pure ammonia as well as mixtures of ammonia and natural gas. Tests were conducted with…


Development of Low-NOx Combustor of Micro Gas Turbine Firing Ammonia Gas

A massive influx of renewable energy is required in order to mitigate global warming. Although hydrogen is a renewable media, its storage and transportation in large quantity is difficult. Ammonia, however, is a hydrogen energy carrier, and its storage and transportation technology is already established. Although ammonia fuel combustion was studied in the 1960s in the USA, the development of an ammonia fuel gas turbine had been abandoned because combustion efficiency was unacceptably low [1]. Recent demand for hydrogen energy carrier revives the usage of ammonia fuel. The National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) in Japan, in…


Effects of the Thickness of the Burner Rim, the Velocities of Fuel and Air on Extinction Limit of Ammonia Coaxial Jet Diffusion Flame

Ammonia is regarded as one of the alternative fuels because CO2 doesn’t emit during the combustion process of ammonia. Ammonia also has advantages in storage and transportation. In addition, ammonia has a potential to be a “hydrogen carrier” because of high amount of hydrogen content. However, there are several combustion related problems such as the low flammability, the low radiative power and the high NOx formation. To use ammonia as a fuel, therefore, it is necessary to understand the fundamental phenomena of the combustibility of the ammonia such as laminar burning velocity, strength of the radiation and extinction limit. Since…


Ammonia as a Key to Meeting the Fuel Demand of China

Currently, China is facing a challenge of increasing its energy consumption and simultaneously decreasing its emissions. Particularly, the desire of owning a car is so strong in China that it cannot be easily mitigated by high pricing or taxing. This paper presents the statistical results of fuel consumption in China and predicts the fuel demand in near future, it then compares the fuel demand of China with the fuel production scale of the world. It is concluded that China must utilize clean alternative fuels to meet the fast increasing demand for automotive fuels. The price, distribution infrastructure, and thermodynamic properties…


Solar Hydrogen and Ammonia System Status

Further development results of the Raphael Schmuecker Memorial Solar Hydrogen and Ammonia prototype plant, discussing making of Nitrogen and Ammonia, the energy usage, and the general system efficiencies and output. We would also like to discuss our results of dyno testing the Hydrogen / Hydrogen & Ammonia tractor engine and further developments in ammonia fuel vaporization.


Simulation of Fuel Economy of Gasoline-Ethanol-Ammonia Tertiary Fuel Blends for a Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle

With the depletion of petroleum resources around the world, a need to have cleaner and fuel efficient automotive technologies and alternative fuel sources has become prominent. Hybrid electric vehicles and sustainable energy sources have gained a high momentum in fulfilling this requirement. To satisfy both needs ammonia, which has been used for a long period of time as a sustainable and carbon free transport fuel can be combined with hybrid electric vehicles. Ammonia when blended with gasoline can be used as an alternate fuel to power existing internal combustion engines. Such blends similar to ethanol-gasoline fuel blends would provide a…