Paper

Nitrogen Reduction Reaction at High Current-to-Ammonia Efficiency

Apart from its use in the fertiliser and chemical industries, ammonia is currently attracting our community as a potential carbon-neutral fuel and as an energy carrier for worldwide transportation of renewable sources. To achieve this goal, replacements of the conventional hydrocarbon deposit-based technology for NH3 production require to be a green but inexpensive and scale-flexible technology, namely the only genuine electrochemical lithium-mediated nitrogen reduction reaction (Li-NRR). Reported by many research groups around the world, the process had so far been hampered by poor yield rates and efficiencies. At Monash University, we introduced a compact ionic assembly arranged in the electrode-electrolyte…

Article

AI & High-Performance Computing for ammonia catalyst R&D

Fujitsu and Iceland-based Atmonia will join forces to accelerate catalyst development for the production of ammonia via electrochemical nitrogen reduction reaction (eNRR). By using artificial intelligence and high-performance computing (HPC) technologies, the researchers can conduct “high-speed quantum chemical calculations” virtually rather than via physical experiments, allowing for greater flexibility & speed.

Paper

High-productivity electrosynthesis of ammonia from dinitrogen

The so-called lithium redox-mediated nitrogen reduction reaction presents the only known process enabling genuine electrochemical conversion of N2 to ammonia. Notwithstanding the rapidly increasing investigative efforts, the commonly reported performances of the Li-mediated N2 electroreduction, viz. yield rate, current-to-ammonia (faradaic) efficiency and durability in operation, still pertain to the domain of academic research rather than practical development. Our most recent work focused on redesigning the key components of the electrolytic N2 reduction cell enabled breakthroughs in all the key metrics of the process. Specifically, we have introduced a stable proton shuttle based on the phosphonium cation that delivers protons to…

Paper

Alternatives to Ammonia Synthesis: An Electrochemical Haber-Bosch Process

Several alternatives to the existing process for ammonia synthesis, the Haber-Bosch Process, have been proposed in the past two decades, including the electrochemical synthesis in aqueous, molten salt or solid electrolyte cells. The present work reviews results of recent efforts (last 3 years) for the electrochemical synthesis of ammonia. An Electrochemical Haber-Bosch Process is also demonstrated. The proposed BaZrO3 – based protonic ceramic membrane reactor combines hydrogen production via the reactions of methane steam reforming and water-gas shift at the anode (Ni-composite) with ammonia synthesis from N 2 and protons (H + ) at the cathode (VN-Fe). Hydrogen extraction from…

Paper

Electrification of Ammonia Synthesis

Near-term prospects for decarbonized ammonia synthesis rely on conventional thermochemical Haber Bosch coupled to either electrochemical hydrogen production or methods of mitigating carbon emissions, such as carbon capture and storage. Thermochemical Haber Bosch requires high temperatures to achieve significant rates of ammonia synthesis and high pressures in order to achieve reasonable conversions of nitrogen and hydrogen to ammonia. Next-generation electrically-driven routes raise the prospect of using voltage in the place of temperature and pressure – an ambient pressure and room temperature route through which renewable electricity can be used to convert nitrogen and hydrogen to ammonia. Electrically-driven routes for nitrogen…