Basic Co-Firing Characteristics of Ammonia with Pulverized Coal in a Single Burner Test Furnace

Ammonia is expected as a potential fuel to substitute fossil fuels, because it does not discharge carbon dioxide and is easily handled by liquefaction. There are several ways for the direct use of ammonia as a fuel; for example, use in fuel cells and combustion devices. One of the possible application is the combustion use in thermal power plants. In particular, co-firing of ammonia in coal-fired power plants seems to have a relatively great advantage on the suppression of greenhouse gases, because coal is one of the main emission source of carbon dioxide. On the other hand, it is concerned…


Ammonia-Hydrogen Power for Combustion Engines

Ammonia blends can potentially become a breakthrough chemical for power generation, cooling storage and distribution of energy. Gas turbines and internal combustion engines are potential candidates for the use of the resource in an efficient way that will enable commissioning of combined cycles to power communities around Europe and around the world while serving as sources of heat and chemical storage. Therefore, development of these systems will bring to the market a safer, zero carbon fuel that can be used for multiple purposes, thus decentralizing power generation and increasing sustainability in the communities of the future whilst positioning the developing…


NH3 / N2 / O2 Non-Premixed Flame in a 10 kW Experimental Furnace – Characteristics of Radiative Heat Transfer

There are severe issues on increasing amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) emission in the world. Many studies are devoted on alternative fuels. One of superior candidates is the utilization of hydrogen energy which can realize a low-carbon and hydrogen-based society. Ammonia might play an important role which is zero emission of CO2, and is useful for hydrogen energy carrier as a clean energy. Additionally, ammonia is an easily-liquefiable fuel with pressure of about 0.86 MPa and temperature of 293 K. Commercially, ammonia is produced in large quantity by the Haber–Bosch process. It is also to be produced by using catalyst…


Efficient and Clean Combustion of Ammonia-Hydrogen-Air Mixtures

Based on its well-known merits ammonia has been gaining special attention as a potential renewable energy carrier which can be replaced in power generation systems. Considering its low flame speed and its potential for producing fuel NOx as the main challenges of combusting ammonia, flame stability, combustion efficiency, and NOx formation are experimentally investigated. Focus is on premixed ammonia-hydrogen-air flames with high mixture fractions of ammonia (60-90% by volume) under standard temperature and pressure conditions. We introduce silicon-carbide (SiC) porous block as a practical and effective medium for ammonia-hydrogen-air flame stabilization which enables stable and efficient combustion of the mixtures…


Effects of the Thickness of the Burner Rim, the Velocities of Fuel and Air on Extinction Limit of Ammonia Coaxial Jet Diffusion Flame

Ammonia is regarded as one of the alternative fuels because CO2 doesn’t emit during the combustion process of ammonia. Ammonia also has advantages in storage and transportation. In addition, ammonia has a potential to be a “hydrogen carrier” because of high amount of hydrogen content. However, there are several combustion related problems such as the low flammability, the low radiative power and the high NOx formation. To use ammonia as a fuel, therefore, it is necessary to understand the fundamental phenomena of the combustibility of the ammonia such as laminar burning velocity, strength of the radiation and extinction limit. Since…


Development of New Combustion Strategy for Internal Combustion Engine Fueled By Pure Ammonia

Ammonia is considered as a promising hydrogen-carrier with good storability and transportability, which, then, can be used as a carbon-free fuel as needed. However, once the ammonia is produced from the regenerative sources, it is essential to develop the energy conversion device of the chemical energy stored in ammonia into some other useful forms, e.g. electricity. Among various candidates, we focus on an internal combustion engine as energy conversion device which can be applied on automobile, power plant and etc. and can use ammonia as fuel only by simple modification. There have been many studies on the use of ammonia…


Detailed Observation of Coal-Ammonia Co-Combustion Processes

Coal-fired power generation is supplying about 30% of the world’s primary energy. Almost all of coal-fired power plants in Japan employ the pulverized coal combustion method. In the pulverized coal combustion, coal is pulverized into a powder of several tens of microns. This method enables to burn coal effectively because of the large surface to volume ratio. Pulverized coal particles are supplied to the actual boilers with primary air whose Air/Coal ratio (mass flow rate of primary air/mass flow rate of pulverized coal) is set to 2.0. Co-combustion of coal with ammonia has been studied with the aim of reducing…


Combustion Emissions from NH3 Fuel Gas Turbine Power Generation Demonstrated

To protect against global warming, a massive influx of renewable energy is expected. Although H2 is a renewable media, its storage and transportation in large quantity is difficult. NH3 fuel, however, is an H2 energy carrier and carbon-free fuel, and its storage and transportation technology is already established. Although NH3 fuel combustion was studied in the 1960s in the USA, the development of an NH3 fuel gas turbine had been abandoned because combustion efficiency was unacceptably low [1]. Recent demand for H2 energy carrier revives the usage of NH3 fuel, but no one has attempted an actual design setup for…


Nitrogen-Based Fuels: Renewable Hydrogen Carriers

Renewable energy sources such as solar and wind suffer from an intermittent power output, making energy storage a key element in future energy infrastructure. Fuels offer both high energy densities and efficient transport compared to other energy storage alternatives. One energy storage solution is water electrolysis. However, the generated hydrogen is incompatible with the global fuel infrastructure, inhibiting its implementation as an energy vector. Storing hydrogen on carrier atoms provides a safe and convenient way to utilize and transport renewable energies. While carbon–based fuels are commonly suggested, using nitrogen as a hydrogen carrier can potentially offer a superior option. In…


Ammonia Turbine Power Generation with Reduced NOx

A common concern with ammonia fuel is that NOx emissions will be too high to control. However, in new research from Turkey, USA, and Japan, presented at this year's NH3 Fuel Conference in September 2016, two things became clear. First, NOx emissions can be reduced to less than 10ppm by employing good engineering design and exploiting the chemical properties of ammonia, which plays a dual role as both the fuel and the emissions-cleanup agent. Second, the deployment of ammonia-fueled turbines for power generation is not only feasible, but actively being developed, with demonstration units running today and improved demonstration projects currently in development.