Paper

Effect of Water on the Auto-Ignition of a Non-Carbon Nitrogen-Based Monofuel

The fluctuating nature of renewable energy sources is becoming a limiting factor in their widespread utilization. Energy storage solutions must be developed to overcome this issue. Chemical fuels are considered to be a promising solution to this problem. We are studying the implementation of nitrogen-based fuels for this purpose. An aqueous solution of ammonium nitrate and ammonium hydroxide (AAN) is suggested as a carbon-free nitrogen-based synthetic monofuel. This solution may serve as a renewable nitrogen-based synthetic hydrogen carrier since it is safe to store, transport and utilize. Since ammonium hydroxide (AH) and ammonium nitrate (AN) act as reducer and net…

Paper

The Role of “Green” Ammonia in Decarbonising Energy Systems: Practical Demonstration and Economic Considerations

Ammonia has the potential to contribute significantly to the decarbonisation of energy systems, by offering a practical, carbon-free hydrogen storage and transportation vector as well as a green fuel in its own right. To better understand the prospects and challenges surrounding the use of ammonia in energy systems, Siemens is leading a collaborative project to build and test an ammonia-based energy storage system at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the UK. Together with its project partners (the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council, the University of Oxford and the University of Cardiff), and supported by Innovate UK, Siemens will demonstrate…

Paper

Dutch Initiatives to Store Sustainable Energy in the Form of Ammonia

Proton Ventures BV is a company dedicated to supply mini ammonia units for storing decentralised produced (sustainable) energy. Proton has developed a commercial unit for the production of small amounts of ammonia, which can store up to 25 MW of power or equivalent (bio-) gas energy. Hans Vrijenhoef, as the director of the company, will give an overview of existing plans in The Netherlands to store this decentralised energy and to make use of this in an economic way. The N-Fuel units will be skid-mounted, safe in operation, and almost fully automated in order to keep CAPEX and OPEX costs…

Article

The Ammonia Economy at the ACS National Meeting

The American Chemical Society (ACS) has published the program for its 2017 National Meeting, which takes place next month in Washington DC and includes a session dedicated to the "Ammonia Economy." The first day of the week-long meeting, Sunday August 20th, will feature a full morning of technical papers from the US, UK, and Japan, covering ammonia energy topics across three general areas: producing hydrogen from ammonia, developing new catalysts for ammonia synthesis and oxidation, and storing ammonia in solid chemical form.

Paper

Decentralised ammonia production in the Netherlands

Our presentation will summarize the results of two government funded research projects Proton carried out over the last year. The presentation will give an overview of the Dutch power and chemicals (ammonia) markets. We will start by including a brief history of both markets, current trends and foreseen problems. We propose that electrification of the chemical industry will solve the anticipated problems.

Paper

Ammonia for Green Energy Storage and Beyond

Siemens is participating in an all electric ammonia synthesis and energy storage system demonstration programme at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, near Oxford. The demonstrator, which will run until December 2017, is supported by Innovate UK. Collaborators include the University of Oxford, Cardiff University and the Science & Technology Facilities Council.

Paper

Electro-Synthesis of Ammonia for Grid Scale Energy Storage

Ceramatec Inc., in partnership with its partners, will develop a lower temperature and higher efficiency membrane process to synthesize ammonia for energy storage. Ammonia (NH3) is carbon-free, has a high energy density (>4 kW/l), which enables many hours of energy storage from large renewable power projects in small areas, and can be back converted to electricity using turbines or fuel cells at high efficiency. Ammonia synthesis is currently carried out in very large Haber-Bosch plants, mostly fueled from natural gas. The current large-scale Haber-Bosch (H-B) technology needs to run at constant inputs of energy and reactants. Moreover, ammonia is an…

Paper

Ammonia Storage Materials Using Metal Halides and Borohydrides

Ammonia (NH3) is easily liquefied by compression at 1 MPa and 25 °C, and has a highest volumetric hydrogen density of 10.7 kg H2 /100L in hydrogen carriers. The volumetric hydrogen density is above 1.5 times of liquid hydrogen at 0.1 MPa and -253 °C. The vapor pressure of liquid NH3 is similar to propane. Moreover it has a high gravimetric hydrogen density of 17.8 mass%. NH3 is burnable substance and has a side as an energy carrier which is different from other hydrogen carriers. The heat of formation of NH3 is 30.6 kJ/molH2. The value is about 1/10 of…

Paper

Ammonia Storage in Metal Ammines

Ammonia has attracted interest as a promising alternative fuel for internal combustion engines due to the fact that ammonia does not release carbon dioxide during combustion.[1] Storing ammonia in the form of metal ammines is the most notable way to overcome the challenges that are related to the use of NH3 in liquid form, namely the toxicity and corrosive nature of ammonia.[2] Ammine complexes of light transition metal halides (such as Co, Ni) are very promising candidates because they exhibit high ammonia contents and they are relatively stable at room temperature. The CoX2 system is an interesting candidate, especially cobalt…

Paper

Thermochemical energy storage with ammonia and implications for ammonia as a fuel

This seminar presents recent advances in ammonia-based thermochemical energy storage1 (TCES), supported by an award from the US Department of Energy SunShot program. The goal of SunShot is to “reduce the total installed cost of solar energy systems to $.06 per kWh by 2020.” Within the arena of concentrating solar thermal power, Sunshot has established goals for each subsytem, including reducing the cost of the energy storage subsystem to $15 per kWht of stored energy and enabling working fluid temperatures greater than 600°C, consistent with advanced, high performance power blocks. Schematic of an NH3-based thermochemical energy storage system. In ammonia-based…