Paper

Exploring ammonia’s potential as a marine fuel

International shipping is responsible for approximately 90% of the world trade. Looking to the relative emissions, in gram CO2 per ton km, maritime transport score significantly better compared to others like rail, road and airfreight. However, since most of the transport is done by ships the absolute contribution of greenhouse gases (GHG) by the maritime industry is clearly visible. Of all the global emissions the maritime industry is responsible for 3% CO2, 13% SOx, and 15% NOx. To reduce SOx and NOx several regulations are either upcoming or already in play. Current regulations require the sulphur emissions to be less…

Paper

Ship Operation Using LPG and Ammonia As Fuel on MAN B&W Dual Fuel ME-LGIP Engines

LPG has been used as fuel in the car industry for many years and now, with Exmar and Statoil’s orders for ocean-going ships fitted with the dual fuel ME-LGIP engine, LPG will be used on marine engines as well. The new engine series is currently being developed to match all types of bigger merchant ships. This order was made in consequence of the new 2020 0.5% sulphur fuel cap, but this step forward has not stopped the discussion and interest in lowering CO2, NOx, SOx and particulate emissions even further. On the contrary, it has actually been further fuelled by…

Article

Bunker Ammonia: momentum toward a “sus­tainable and future-proof” maritime fuel

The maritime industry is beginning to show significant interest in using ammonia as a "bunker fuel," a sustainable alternative to the highly polluting heavy fuel oil (HFO) currently used in ships across the world. In recent months, a firm of naval architects and a new maritime think tank have both been evaluating ammonia as a fuel. This includes a road map for future research, and collaborations for a demonstration project that will allow them to design and build a freight ship "Powered by NH3."

Article

Bunker Ammonia: carbon-free liquid fuel for ships

The shipping industry is beginning to evaluate ammonia as a potential "bunker fuel," a carbon-free alternative to the heavy fuel oil (HFO) used in maritime transport. International trade associations are leading the effort to decarbonize the sector, in alignment with targets set by the Paris Climate Agreement. Their immediate challenge is simple to state but hard to solve: "ambitious CO2 reduction objectives will only be achievable with alternative marine fuels which do not yet exist." In the long-term, however researchers recognize that "fuel cell-powered ships are likely to dominate, drawing their energy from fuels such as hydrogen and ammonia."