Article

Maritime decarbonization is a trillion dollar opportunity

In January 2020, the Global Maritime Forum published new analysis that calculates "the capital investment needed to achieve decarbonization" in line with the International Maritime Organization's Initial GHG Strategy. The result of this analysis, which assumes that ammonia will be "the primary zero carbon fuel choice adopted by the shipping industry," is an aggregate investment of between $1 trillion and $1.4 trillion dollars, from 2030 to 2050, or roughly $50 to $70 billion per year across two decades. Ship-side costs are only 13% of this number. The bulk of the investment will be directed towards green ammonia plants for maritime fuel synthesis. By 2050, this global fuel demand is estimated to be more than 900 million tons per year of green ammonia, more than five time today's total global output of conventional ammonia.

Article

MAN ammonia engine update

In November 2019, MAN ES published a technical paper describing the design and performance of its two-stroke green-ammonia engine. The paper also quietly announces the intentions of MAN ES to exploit ammonia energy technologies in a new business case, Power-to-X (PtX, "the carbon-neutral energy storage and sector coupling technology of the future"). In other words, MAN is moving into green ammonia fuel production.

Article

Viking Energy to be retrofit for ammonia fuel in 2024

This morning, it was announced that the "Viking Energy," a supply vessel for Equinor's offshore operations, will be modified to run on a 2 MW direct ammonia fuel cell. This will be a five year project: the technology will be scaled-up on land before being installed on the vessel, which will begin a year of GHG emission-free operations in 2024. The Norwegian partners leading this "world's first" project include shipowner Eidesvik, contractor Equinor, and ammonia producer Yara, as well as Wärtsilä (Wärtsilä Norway), responsible for power technology and ammonia storage and distribution systems, and Prototech, delivering the fuel cell system.

Article

Ammonia-fueled ships: entering the design phase

Three separate projects to design a range of ammonia-fueled vessels were announced last week at a shipping industry conference in China. Lloyd's Register has granted Approval in Principle (AiP) for the design of a 180,000 ton bulk carrier. ABS announced a project to "produce designs for an ammonia-fueled Chittagongmax container carrier of 2700 TEU capacity." And Lloyd's Register also announced a project for "an ammonia-fuelled 23,000 TEU Ultra-Large Container Ship (ULCS) concept design." All three projects are working with the two-stroke ammonia engine developed by MAN Energy Solutions, and all are led by major shipbuilders in China.

Paper

Ammonia – Could it replace HFO/LSFO?

The core of this presentation deals with the nature of ammonia, its natural characteristics that make it a future fuel solution candidate, the safety measures that need to be applied in order to carry it on board without endangering lives, environment & property, as well as whether this would be a feasible and cost- or risk-effective solution. For a long time, a lot of discussions have been centered around this subject, now bringing it to the immediate forefront & creating various questions that we will aim to answer to the interested individuals’, ship-managers’, businesses’, ship-owners’ and corporations’ satisfaction. Lloyd’s Register –…

Paper

Safe and Effective Application of Ammonia As a Marine Fuel

To achieve significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions in shipping and enable ship owner’s to eventually phase them out entirely renewable fuels, such as ammonia, play a crucial role. However, much is still unknown regarding application of ammonia as a marine fuel. An ammonia carrier is used as basis to perform the study identifying the marine technical feasibility and performance of ammonia. Furthermore, a safety analysis is performed on the system level providing the first design principles for ammonia powered vessels. The results of this theoretical research will be presented including an outlook on new developments on the implementation of…

Paper

Technical & Economic Study for Commercial Ships with HFO, LNG and NH; As Fuel

Objective/Scope: International Maritime Organization (IMO) announced the initial strategy for GHG (Green-House Gas) emission of ships according to “Paris Climate Agreement”. In order to resolve the GHG emission issue from ships, a demand for GHG solution technologies is increasing such as alternative fuels and energies. Recently, some reports by some companies and research centers have been presented some positive results on NH3 for ship GHG reduction. And MAN Energy Solutions presented some development plans on ammonia engines for ship CO2 emission reduction. DSME (Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering) also thinks that ammonia can be one of options as ship fuel…

Paper

Fuel Transition Scenarios for the Maritime Industry up to 2050

This paper will present some of the University College London Energy Institute’s recent and ongoing work on likely fuel transition scenarios for the maritime industry, and discuss potential scenarios under which ammonia could become a substantial fuel for shipping (i.e. carbon price, developments vs hydrogen, costs, and non-market factors).