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Ammonia combustion analysis: powertrains, turbines & power generation

This week we explore four updates in ammonia combustion R&D:

1. A team from the University of Cambridge has shown merchant vessels are the strongest candidates for conversion to run on ammonia powertrains, with cargo capacity losses of 4-9% able to be feasibly offset by operators.

2. Researchers at the University of Minnesota have successfully tested a thermochemical recuperation (TCR) reactor to improve the efficiency of a dual-fuel, diesel-ammonia compression ignition engine by minimising ammonia slip.

3. A global team led by Cardiff University researchers has revealed some of the inner workings of ammonia combustion in gas turbine flames.

4. A global team has produced a cradle-to-gate environmental assessment for ammonia production and ammonia-based electricity generation, suggesting that renewable and nuclear ammonia have a significant role to play in decarbonising the power sector.

Article

WinGD to develop ammonia maritime engines by 2025

Swiss-based engine developer WinGD has announced that its current portfolio of low-speed maritime engines will be ready to operate on methanol and ammonia by 2024 and 2025 respectively. Although WinGD's diesel-fueled X Engine series will require retrofits, the X-DF Engine series is already designed to run on biogas and will not require major modifications to run on methanol or ammonia.

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Kawasaki Heavy’s LPG/ammonia carrier in demand

Kawasaki Heavy Industry's 86,700 m3, LPG and "liquefied ammonia gas" (LAG) carrier has been ordered for the fifth time in 2021. K Line, Eneos (two vessels) and now NYK (also two vessels) will take delivery of the VLGCs from KHI's Sakaide shipyards in 2023 (K Line and Eneos), and 2024 (NYK). The flexibility of the dual-purpose LPG/ammonia carrier is key to its newfound popularity.

Article

ZeroCoaster: ammonia-fueled cargo shipping

AFC Energy has designed a developed a containerised, integrated, ammonia-fed propulsion system that will power the new "ZeroCoaster" vessel design. The ZeroCoaster consortium, led by Vard Engineering and including ABB, Trosvik Maritime, SINTEF Ocean and HK Shipping (plus support from the Norweigian government) is developing the next generation of coastal bulk cargo carriers. With the propulsion system design in place, DNV GL granted commercial Approval in Principle to the ZeroCoaster design this week, allowing the consortium to begin discussions with potential buyers.

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Fortescue, LMG Marin and Eidesvik to launch ammonia-powered ships

Four ammonia-powered ships were announced this week, with a mixture of retrofits and newbuilds. Fortescue Future Industries will convert the MMA Leveque to run on near 100% ammonia fuel within 12 months. Grieg Maritime and Wartsila's MS Green Ammonia vessel has a designer, with LMG Marin engaged to complete a concept by mid next year. And Eidesvik, Aker BP and Alma (formerly Prototech AS) have joined forces to deploy the ammonia-fed fuel cell technology being developed for the Viking Energy project.

Paper

Maritime Ammonia Fuel – Stepping Forward

Clearly, by now it is a great understatement to say that ammonia as a maritime fuel has potential or could be developed as an alternative to fossil maritime fuels. Enablers for maritime ammonia fuel are being developed and we have moved past simple potential. In terms of on board technology, supply and other critical areas, maritime ammonia fuel is stepping forward. However, we are only starting out and the road ahead remains long, unclear and of course paved with many potential barriers. We welcome therefore the dedication and quality of work being undertaken by many different entities to help untangle complexity and illustrate pathways. Within…

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Green Ammonia Opportunities in Utility Resilience/Storage and Logistics

The presentation will describe projects being undertaken in the Western United States utilizing low cost and redundant renewable energy resources to generate green hydrogen that would be converted to green ammonia; that ammonia will be utilized in various ways but will provide a readily available source of energy for use as an energy storage system by utilities (with a focus on municipal utilities) that will use these systems for energy resiliency and storage, as well as industry and consumer facing users such as fleet fueling (as ammonia, hydrogen, and electrical power for EVs), as well as maritime applications.