Paper

Low-Pressure Electrolytic Ammonia Synthesis Via High-Temperature Polymer-Based Proton Exchange Membrane

The University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) and North Dakota State University (NDSU) have developed a low-pressure electrolytic ammonia (LPEA) production process. The LPEA process uses an electrochemical cell based on an innovative polymer–inorganic composite (PIC) high-temperature (300°C) gas-impermeable proton-exchange membrane conceptualized and partially developed by EERC and NDSU. Because of its operability at ambient pressure and quick start-up capability (versus traditional high-pressure Haber Bosch-based plants), the LPEA process offers compatibility with smaller-scale plants and intermittent operation, and a cost-effective means of monetizing (and storing) renewable energy as ammonia. EERC, NDSU, and Proton OnSite are embarking…

Paper

A Low Pressure Membrane Based Renewable Ammonia Synthesis

Ammonia is currently mostly produced by the highly energy and carbon-intensive Haber–Bosch process, which requires temperatures of 450–500 °C and pressures of up to 200 bar. The feedstock for this process is hydrogen from natural gas (NG), coal or oil, and nitrogen produced from air by cryogenic route or pressure swing adsorption (PSA). The share of NG, coal and fuel oil feedstock for the global production of ammonia is 72%, 22% and 4% respectively, contributing to approximately 420 million tons of CO2 emissions per annum, representing over 1% of global energy related emissions. The energy consumed for ammonia synthesis by…