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Ammonia Safety — Managing the Risks

Introduction Yara international is a Norwegian chemical company and one of the largest companies on the Oslo Stock exchange. Founded in 1905 to solve the emerging famine in Europe, Yara has established a unique position as the industry’s only global crop nutrition company. Yara has an integrated business model and a worldwide presence of around 16,000 employees and operations in over 60 countries. In 2019, Yara reported revenues of USD 12.9 billion. Yara produces annually approximately 8 million tonnes of ammonia and around 22 million tonnes of finished fertilizer and industrial products (excluding bulk blends). Webinar content Ammonia has been…

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Fast-Ramping Reactor for CO2-Free NH3 Synthesis

Starfire Energy is developing a fast-ramping reactor for making CO2-free NH3 for fuel, energy storage, and agricultural applications. A fast-ramping reactor is desired to follow (a) variable electricity generation from CO2-free sources such wind and solar power plants or (b) variable availability from CO2-free baseload electricity generation such as nuclear or hydroelectric power plants. The reactor builds upon the Haber-Bosch process by (a) introducing a higher activity supported Ru catalyst (over 4.5 mmol g-1 h-1 at 1 atm and over 45 mmol g-1 h-1 at 10 atm) and (b) further enhancing the catalysis by applying an electric potential or electric…

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Process Synthesis and Global Optimization of Novel Ammonia Production Processes

Synthetic ammonia production has played a huge role in sustaining population growth by providing the nitrogen in fertilizers that are widely used in modern agriculture. Even long after it was first commercially developed by Fritz Haber and Carl Bosch in the 1930s, the Haber-Bosch process remains the basis for industrial ammonia production today. Through reducing energy requirements by half in the last 50 years, centralized industrial plants have kept their technical and economic advantage over other modes of operation. However, the centralized production also comes with high transportation costs, since plant capacities usually exceed local ammonia consumption [1]. This and…

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Novel Catalysts for Ammonia Cracking and Synthesis

The most effective ammonia cracking catalysts are currently based on rare metals such as ruthenium and cobalt. While iron can efficiently crack ammonia at 600 °C, it is desirable to develop similarly inexpensive catalysts that are effective at lower temperatures between 350 °C and 500 °C. In this presentation, a new family of imide-based catalysts are described that crack ammonia around 400 °C to 550 °C. These materials do not behave as conventional surface-based catalysts and offer an affordable route for on-board cracking of ammonia for hydrogen fuel-cell cars. The operational parameters of a small 50W lab-based demonstrator will be…

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Decentralised ammonia production in the Netherlands

Our presentation will summarize the results of two government funded research projects Proton carried out over the last year. The presentation will give an overview of the Dutch power and chemicals (ammonia) markets. We will start by including a brief history of both markets, current trends and foreseen problems. We propose that electrification of the chemical industry will solve the anticipated problems.

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Thermochemical energy storage with ammonia and implications for ammonia as a fuel

This seminar presents recent advances in ammonia-based thermochemical energy storage1 (TCES), supported by an award from the US Department of Energy SunShot program. The goal of SunShot is to “reduce the total installed cost of solar energy systems to $.06 per kWh by 2020.” Within the arena of concentrating solar thermal power, Sunshot has established goals for each subsytem, including reducing the cost of the energy storage subsystem to $15 per kWht of stored energy and enabling working fluid temperatures greater than 600°C, consistent with advanced, high performance power blocks. Schematic of an NH3-based thermochemical energy storage system.In ammonia-based TCES…

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Key Life Cycle Assessment Numbers for NH3, Green and Brown Energy

This talk will present the results of two recent studies. In the first study, four different ammonia production methods are comparatively evaluated using life cycle assessment (LCA). The proposed ammonia production systems consist of an electrolyzer for hydrogen production and a Haber-Bosch plant for ammonia synthesis. The required energy for the systems are utilized from various resources namely hydropower, nuclear, biomass and municipal waste. Life cycle assessment methodology is used to identify and quantify environmental impacts in global warming potential, human toxicity and abiotic depletion categories of each method during the life cycle of the systems. The proposed non-conventional ammonia…

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Progress in the Electrochemical Synthesis of Ammonia

Ammonia is one of the most important and widely produced chemicals worldwide with a key role in the growth of human population. Nowadays, the main route for ammonia synthesis is the Haber-Bosch process, developed one century ago. In this process, Fe-based catalysts are usually employed at temperatures between 400 and 500°C and pressures between 130 and 170 bar. As opposed to the industrial process, in nature, plants and bacteria have been producing ammonia for millions of years at mild conditions. Atmospheric nitrogen is reduced by solvated protons on the FeMo cofactor of the metalloenzyme nitrogenase. The natural method of nitrogen…

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Ammonia for Energy Storage and Delivery

The Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA-E) funds high risk, high reward transformational research to reduce energy related emissions, reduce imports of energy from foreign sources, improve energy efficiency across all economic sectors, and ensure US technological lead in advanced energy technologies, including electrochemical energy storage and transformation for grid scale and automotive applications. Storing energy in the form of liquid fuels has numerous advantages compared to conventional methods of energy storage (ES) such as batteries (high cost, short cycle life), pumped hydro and compressed air (low energy density). Low costs of storage and transportation of liquid fuels enables long-time ES…

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NH3 Fuel — Gaining Momentum

This paper provides an overview of the impressive characteristics of NH3 as a fuel. NH3 is the closet thing to an ideal fuel due to its production flexibility, competitive cost, infrastructure cost/availability, efficiency, environmental performance, and safety. This year’s presentation will emphasize why NH3 is the best bridge fuel between fossil and renewable fuels and why it is relatively simple to make NH3 safe enough to meet the most stringent existing fuel safety standards.