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Ammonia as a liquid for the future of aviation

Zero-emission aviation initiatives have mainly focused on using hydrogen or drop-in biofuels and sustainable aviation fuels (SAF) to replace fossil-based jet fuels to achieve near-term reductions in carbon emissions with minimal impacts on the global aircraft fleet and supporting infrastructure. Despite significant advances in the production of such fuels, scaling up manufacturing capability to be cost-competitive remains a challenge. This paper discusses ammonia as a carrier of green hydrogen for aviation, with near-zero emission. Ammonia is proposed as both a carrier of hydrogen as fuel and to provide cooling for compressor intercooling and cooled cooling air for core efficiency improvement,…

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Exhaust gas treatment catalysts for ammonia-fueled engines

Ammonia is expected to be a promising zero-emission fuel because it does not emit CO2 during combustion. However, the exhaust gas from the actual ammonia-fueled engines contains unburned ammonia, nitrogen oxides (NOx), and nitrous oxide (N2O), and there is a need to develop technologies to remove these harmful substances. Unburned ammonia can be removed by a catalytic combustion method using a conventional oxidation catalyst, but NOx and N2O are simultaneously generated as byproducts. Therefore, Nikki-Universal has developed a new catalyst that can remove ammonia at high efficiency while reducing the generation of NOx and N2O. We have also developed a…

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NH3 & Energy Transition: a challenge meeting reality

Proton Ventures is an engineering firm focusing on ammonia solutions ranging from feasibility studies to EPC projects. Examples of previous realized ammonia solutions include large-scale, refrigerated ammonia storage terminals, including railcar loading/unloading facilities. Furthermore, a deNOx facility was installed in Kavala (Greece) for greenhouse gas emission reduction from a nitrate fertilizer facility. Proton Ventures has also been selected as EPC contractor for the Green Ammonia Pilot Plant (GAPP) project in Morocco, which will demonstrate 4 MTPD green ammonia production from simulated renewable energy patterns. The project includes alkaline electrolysis, PEM electrolysis, hydrogen storage, nitrogen purification, and an ammonia synthesis loop.…

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Ammonia for power generation: a new, efficient, low-emissions generator made possible with software enabled technology and precise flameless reaction control

Customers who have historically wanted to use ammonia for power generation have been limited to co-firing with coal or diesel in order to overcome ammonia’s high ignition temperature and slow chemical kinetics. This process comes at a price; carbon emissions, added costs for blending, and significant drops in power output. Fortunately there is a new and cost effective alternative for ammonia-based power generation, one that’s uniquely positioned to run off of 100% ammonia without any reductions in power or efficiency. Precise reaction control, thanks to software-enabled technology, permits the Mainspring Linear Generator to manage fuel compression ratios and utilize a…

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Program on combustion of ammonia and ammonia-hydrogen mixtures for power generation

GTI Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) have embarked on fundamental and applied investigations of ammonia as an alternative energy carrier under a joint program known as Low-Carbon Resources Initiative (LCRI). Focus is on applications under turbine operating conditions for both ammonia and ammonia-hydrogen mixtures. Participating teams members include the University of Central Florida (UCF), Georgia Institute of Technology and CRAFT Tech. Experimental, conceptual designs of combustors and computational efforts are underway since late 2021 and results to-date will be presented. The presentation will also include expanded tasks related to in-depth pursuit of the topic made possible through…

Article

Wärtsilä launches new multi-fuel maritime engine

Wärtsilä has just launched its medium-speed, 4-stroke, Wärtsilä 25 engine, intended to be the first Wärtsilä engine to run on ammonia fuel. From 2023 a technology upgrade will be commercially available to allow the engine to run on alternative fuels like ammonia, with a fully-compliant NOx abatement system already available when running on fossil-based fuels. At the recent Australia conference, MAN ES reported that their two-stroke ammonia engine will be commercially available in 2024, with testing to commence next year.

Article

Developing ammonia maritime engines & fuel: a collaborative approach

The latest episode of Maritime Ammonia Insights webinar centred around collaboration, leadership & Singapore: three critical elements in the maritime ammonia transition. Sofia Furstenberg Stott was joined by Peter H. Kirkeby (MAN Energy Solutions) and Yi Han Ng (Maritime and Port Authority Singapore), who discussed timelines for engine development, the benefits of a consortia approach, and the all-important safety & technical progress of maritime ammonia technologies.

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MAN Energy Solutions 2 stroke Ammonia engine

The marine industry is convinced that Ammonia is not only a very strong candidate as a future fuel, but also that Ammonia will be one of the leading future fuels. MAN Energy solutions has worked since 2019 on the development of a two stroke engine burning Ammonia by using the Diesel principle (as used for other fuels such as Methane , Methanol, Ethane and LPG) In this presentation, we will give an update on the engine design, which we will start testing in Copenhagen in Oct. 2022. The first ammonia engine (with final engine design and combustion process) is scheduled…

Article

Mainspring: ammonia-fed, “linear” power generators

US-based Mainspring Energy has announced successful testing of pure ammonia fuel in its Linear Generator technology. Running on pure (anhydrous) ammonia, the overall system efficiency was 1% higher than conventional gas fuels, and Mainspring indicates that “off-the-shelf” technology available for current gas turbine models can yield NOx emissions that “meet any permitting standard”. Mainspring aims for its product to displace diesel-powered backup generators in a variety of applications.