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Development of New Combustion Strategy for Internal Combustion Engine Fueled By Pure Ammonia

Ammonia is considered as a promising hydrogen-carrier with good storability and transportability, which, then, can be used as a carbon-free fuel as needed. However, once the ammonia is produced from the regenerative sources, it is essential to develop the energy conversion device of the chemical energy stored in ammonia into some other useful forms, e.g. electricity. Among various candidates, we focus on an internal combustion engine as energy conversion device which can be applied on automobile, power plant and etc. and can use ammonia as fuel only by simple modification. There have been many studies on the use of ammonia…

Article

SIP “Energy Carriers” video: ammonia turbines, industrial furnaces, fuel cells

To demonstrate the progress of the SIP "Energy Carriers" program, the Japan Science and Technology Agency last week released a video, embedded below, that shows three of its ammonia fuel research and development projects in operation. R&D is often an abstract idea: this video shows what it looks like to generate power from ammonia. As it turns out, fuel cells aren't hugely photogenic. Nonetheless, if a picture is worth a thousand words, this will be a long article.

Article

Ammonia Turbine Power Generation with Reduced NOx

A common concern with ammonia fuel is that NOx emissions will be too high to control. However, in new research from Turkey, USA, and Japan, presented at this year's NH3 Fuel Conference in September 2016, two things became clear. First, NOx emissions can be reduced to less than 10ppm by employing good engineering design and exploiting the chemical properties of ammonia, which plays a dual role as both the fuel and the emissions-cleanup agent. Second, the deployment of ammonia-fueled turbines for power generation is not only feasible, but actively being developed, with demonstration units running today and improved demonstration projects currently in development.

Paper

Combustion characteristics of ammonia/air flames for a model swirl burner and an actual gas turbine combustor

Ammonia is expected not only as hydrogen energy carrier but also as carbon free fuel. For an industrial use of ammonia combustor, ammonia flame stabilized on a swirl combustor should be clarified. However, in order to realize an ammonia-fueled combustor, there are some issues to be solved, such as a difficulty of flame stabilization and reductions of NOx and ammonia emission. In this study, stabilization and emission characteristics of ammonia / air flames stabilized by a model swirl burner are investigated. The outer and inner diameters of the swirler are 24 mm and 14 mm, respectively, and the swirl number…

Paper

NOx emission analysis and flame stabilization of ammonia-hydrogen-air premixed flames

Based on its well-known merits, ammonia has been gaining special attention as a potential renewable energy carrier which can be replaced in power generation units. One of the major challenges with ammonia as a fuel is NOx emission, which has a complex underlying chemical kinetics. In an earlier chemical kinetics study by the authors, NOx formation sensitivity was thoroughly studied in a wide range of combustion conditions [Nozari & Karabeyoğlu, J.Fuel 2015]. As the next step, premixed ammonia-hydrogen-air flames are studied experimentally in standard temperature and pressure condition. Effects of some major influential parameters on NOx emission levels are investigated:…

Paper

A Hybrid Vehicle Powered by Hydrogen and Ammonia

A partnership of Research and Industry entities has developed a fully working hybrid electric vehicle equipped with a 15 kW IC engine fuelled with liquid ammonia as a range extender of the lithium batteries pack on board. The entire vehicle powertrain (ie, the IC engine, the electric generator coupled with the engine, the electric motor, the electronics etc.) has been studied and designed. Regarding the IC engine, as is known, ammonia combustion is characterized by a high activation energy and a low flame velocity, therefore a small amount of hydrogen is requested as igniter and combustion promoter. The necessary amount…