Ammonia as Alternative Maritime fuel

Global shipping will by 2050 need to reduce the GHG emissions by 50% compared to the 2008 baseline, according to one of the targets set by the IMO, as well as a goal of being GHG neutral by the end of the century. The adoption of carbon neutral fuels will be a key enabler to achieve this goal. This presentation will consider these issues and suggest a process and pathway to overcome regulatory barriers, safety, and infrastructure for ammonia that needs to be addressed to facilitate the use of ammonia as a fuel in shipping.


IIAR Standards and Guidelines

The International Institute of Ammonia Refrigeration (IIAR) is a professional society and trade association dedicated to the use of natural refrigerants, the most prevalent of which is ammonia. IIAR members embrace the safe use of ammonia because of its energy efficiency, ease of use, and wide availability. Soon celebrating 50 years as a professional society, IIAR has developed numerous standards and guidelines that are recognized by government agencies, model codes, and associated organizations in the United States and internationally. Our member library contains hundreds of technical papers on a wide array of topics regarding the use of ammonia. This session…


A marine fuel standard for Ammonia – an engine designers perspective

The presentation will discuss the challenges for operation on ammonia from an engine designers perspective and show the preliminary fuel standard for ammonia for the MAN Energy Solution ME-LGIA two-stroke engine. The presentation will also discuss drivers for change in the marine industry, and what is required for reaching zero-carbon shipping. A recent MAN-ES technical paper on use of ammonia in two-stroke maritime engines is available here.


Targets, Limits, Pledges, Bans: Enforcing the Transition to Sustainable Energy

In the last 12 months ... California passed a law mandating 100% carbon-free electricity by 2045; then its governor announced that the state's entire energy system - not just its electricity - would be carbon-neutral by 2045. The Hydrogen Council announced its "goal of decarbonizing 100% of hydrogen fuel used in transport by 2030." The International Maritime Organization set targets for the global shipping sector to “reduce the total annual GHG emissions by at least 50% by 2050,” and completely “phase them out, as soon as possible in this century,” and these targets were swiftly endorsed by the International Chamber of Shipping. Regulators and self-regulating organizations around the world are enforcing systemic decarbonization and accelerating the transition to a hydrogen economy.


Ammonia Fuel Safety

This paper introduces the existing literature on the safety of using ammonia as a fuel, which provides comparative data for a range of traditional and alternative fuels and energy carriers. The studies reviewed conclude that risk levels associated with using ammonia as a fuel are “similar to those of gasoline,” or “similar, if not lower than for the other fuels,” also including hydrogen, methanol, LPG, and CNG. Ammonia as a fuel can meet all “acceptable” risk levels in even the most stringent regulatory jurisdictions. Addressing popular misconceptions and fears by providing robust sources for quantitative data on the dangers of…


Development of Fuel Quality Specification for Ammonia when used as a Motor Vehicle Fuel

A presentation on the steps needed to start the process of developing an ASTM specification for Ammonia when used as a motor vehicle fuel. What does standard consist of? Minimum quality, harmful contaminants, storage, handling, and safety concerns. The need to indentify or develop standardized test methods. The need for participation by producers (production & distribution), users (OEM’s), general interest groups (government, testing labs), and consumers (fleet owners). Appropriate committee: ASTM, SAE or ISO. Timeframe and hurdles. Volunteers to form an exploratory committee. Discussions? Plans to update the group at the 2015 NH3 Fuel Conference.