Paper

Comparative Technoeconomic Analysis of Conventional and Absorbent-Enhanced Ammonia Synthesis

Ammonia is the second-most produced synthetic chemical and the main precursor for nitrogen-based fertilizer. In 2015, 160 million tons were produced globally, and global demand is expected to grow 1.5% annually until 2050 [1]. However, traditional ammonia production uses natural gas or coal as its hydrogen source, and as a result, is also responsible for more than 1% of global GHG emissions and 5% of global natural gas consumption [2]. Clearly, a more sustainable ammonia production scheme is needed. One such alternative is obtain hydrogen from electrolysis powered by wind- or solar-derived electricity. It has been proposed to perform this…

Paper

An Integrated Evaluation Method with Application to a New Ammonia Synthesis Process Design

While keeping the traditional centralized large-scale chemical production, the increasing market volatility and the rising use of renewable resources will require new production ways such as distributed, modularized, and small-scale production. The new emerging processes are expected to provide more flexibility, shorter time to market, and better use of distributed renewable raw materials (e.g. biomass) and energy (e.g. solar and wind). However, the traditional process evaluation methods such as TEA (Techno-Economic Analysis) tend to lower the value of the new processes since the small-scale would make higher capital cost and lower operation efficiency. Therefore, a new evaluation method is required…

Paper

Technical & Economic Study for Commercial Ships with HFO, LNG and NH; As Fuel

Objective/Scope: International Maritime Organization (IMO) announced the initial strategy for GHG (Green-House Gas) emission of ships according to “Paris Climate Agreement”. In order to resolve the GHG emission issue from ships, a demand for GHG solution technologies is increasing such as alternative fuels and energies. Recently, some reports by some companies and research centers have been presented some positive results on NH3 for ship GHG reduction. And MAN Energy Solutions presented some development plans on ammonia engines for ship CO2 emission reduction. DSME (Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering) also thinks that ammonia can be one of options as ship fuel…